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y^ BRITISH ENTOMOLOGY^ 

y^^y BEING 

ILLUSTRATIONS AND DESCRIPTIONS 

OF 

THE GENERA OF INSECTS 

FOUND IN 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND: 

CONTAINING 

COLOURED FIGURES FROM NATURE 

OF THE MOST RARE AND BEAUTIFUL SPECIES, 

AND IN MANY INSTANCES 

OF THE PLANTS UPON WHICH THEY ARE FOUND. 



BY JOHN CURTIS, F.L.S. 

HONORARV MEMBER OF THE ASHMOLEAN SOCIETY OF OXFORD, 

OF THE IMPERIAL AND ROYAL ACADEMY OF FLORENCE, 

OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, ETC. 



VOL IV. 

HYMENOPTERA, Part IL 
NEUROPTERA. TRICHOPTERA. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR, 

AND SOLD BY 

E. ELLIS AND CO., 92 GREAT RUSSELL STREET, BLOOMSBURY; 

SIMPKIN AND MARSHALL, STATIONERS' COURT ; AND 

J. B. BAILLIERE, 219 REGENT STREET. 

1823—1840. 



'* JUN25 W1 *] 



PRINTED BY RICHARD AND JOHN K. TAYLOR, 
REJ LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



>^v 



TO 

MoNs. P. A. LATREILLE, 

Member of the Institute, of the Legion of Honour, Sfc. S^c. Professor at 

the Garden of Plants, 

WHOSE INVALUABLE AND UNRIVALLED WRITINGS 

HAVE CONTRIBUTED SO ESSENTIALLY TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF SCIENCE, 

THE PRESENT VOLUME 

IS DEDICATED, 

AS A SMALL BUT SINCERE TOKEN 

OF THE ESTEEM AND RESPECT OF 

THE AUTHOR. 

London, Dec. I, 1830. 



TO 

WILLIAM SHARP MACLEAY, Esq. 
M.A. F.L.S. &c. 

TO WHOSE LEARNED AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES 
ENTOxMOLOGISTS ARE SO GREATLY INDEBTED, 

THIS VOLUME 



IS INSCRIBED, 



AS A TOKEN OF FRIENDSHIP, 



AND OF THE ESTEEM OF 



THE AUTHOR. 



London, Dec. 1, 1831. 



7^/ 






,-cii 



a^Uj, cj:-i^^^c/a^./'y<psp 



lb ' mi 



724. 
CLEPTES NITIDULA. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Chrysididae. 

Type of the Genus, Sphex semiaurata Linn. 

Cleftes Lat., Fab., Shuck., Curt. — Ichneumon Rossi. — Sphex Linn. 

Antenna inserted near the margin of the clypeus, approximating, 
not so long as the thorax, geniculated, velvety, a little attenu- 
ated in the male, and 13-jointed, basal joint the longest and 
stoutest, metallic and hairy, 2nd the shortest, obovate-truncate, 
3rd twice as long and linear, the following shorter, oblong, 
slightly attenuated to the apical joint which is the slenderest 
and elliptic-conic (1 (^) : shorter, the flagellum curved and atte- 
nuated to the base and apex in the female, 2nd joint not very 
short, 3rd long and narrowed at the base. 
Labrum forming a small homy subovate lobe, ciliated w^ith long 
hairs (2). 

Mandibles elongate-subtrigonate, tridentate on the inside to- 
wards the apex, pilose externally (3). 

MaxilliB terminated by a large ovate ciliated lobe, with a smaller 
pubescent one on the inside. Palpi not very long, pubescent, 
5-jointed, 2 basal joints rather short, 3rd longer, very stout, 
subovate, 4th not so stout, but about as long, 5th the longest, 
slender and linear (4). 

Mentum corset- shaped. Lip small, fleshy and concealed. Palpi 
moderate, remote, pilose, triarticulate, 2 basal joints obovate, 
truncated obliquely, 3rd joint much longer, subfusiform (5). 
Head short, transverse, narrowed behind : eyes oval : ocelli 3, forming 
a triangle on the crown of the head. Thorax obovate with longitu- 
dinal sutures, and divided transversely into 4 segments : scutel semi- 
ovate : metathorax subquadrate, the angles acuminated. Abdomen 
ovate, depressed, not concave beneath, 5-jointed in the males, 4-jointed 
in the females : oviduct exserted, telescopiform, as long as the body 
(7 ? ), with an aculeus at the apex (a) and a lanceolate valve be- 
neath (y). Wings superior with a small sublanceolate costal cell and 
2 discoidal cells, the external longitudinal nervures reaching the 
margin: inierior "w'mgs with very faint nervures. hegs moderate : 
thighs short, incrassated towards the base: tibiae clavate, spurred at 
the apex : tarsi simple, 5-jointed, basal joint long, 4th small : claws 
and pul villi distinct (8 f). 

NiTiDULA Fab. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 656. 2. 



From the numerous illustrations we have given of the Cyni- 
pidae of Latreille, it will be remembered that they either have 
no labrum, or it is so minute that it has not been discovered, 
except in Perilampus and Smiera : the small labrum of 
Cleptes forms a beautiful transition from the above family to 
the Chrysidae through Hedychrum; and I have lately received 
a most remarkable metallic Bee from America, I believe from 
Columbia, which will prove, I expect, that there exists a 
strong affinity between the Andrenidee and Chrysidae. La- 
treille considered that Cleptes was allied to Bethylus (PI. 720), 



but 1 must confess 1 cannot see any analogy, and with Tiphia 
(PI. GG*) it has no relationship. 

The Cleptes are parasitic upon other Hymenoptera, and 
St. Fargeau seems to think that C. semiaurata is the parasite 
of a Tenth redo. 

It is very remarkable that there does not appear to be any 
very marked character to distinguish the males of the two 
species, although the females are so very dissimilar: the greatest 
difference seems to me to be in the colour of the 3d segment 
of the abdomen, which has much more of the ochre colour in 
C. semiaurata than in C. nitidula, and the tibiae I believe are 
generally more ochreous. 

1. semiaurata Linn. Panz. 51. 2. $. — splendens Fab. $. — 
auratus Panz. 52. I. ? . 

Male bright metallic green, slightly villose : antennte black, 
basal joint green: head and thorax coarsely punctured, faintest 
on the disc of the latter: metathorax rugose: abdomen shining 
deep ochre, the extremity of the 3d segment black, forming a 
point in the middle : the following bright blue : wings slightly 
fuscous, the stigma and nervures brown : legs fulvous, coxa? 
and thighs green, tarsi fuscous. 

Female bright cupreous, 5 basal joints of antennae ochreous, 
the remainder black : abdomen as in the male : wings fuscous, 
with the base and an irregular long spot beyond the disc trans- 
parent : legs entirely fulvous. 

Rather larger than the following: it lives in sandy places, 
and is not uncommon in the vicinity of London in June ; 
Mr. Paget takes it at Yarmouth ; I used to find the females in 
gooseberry bushes in a garden, and they have been detected 
on the horse-bean in a field near Coventry. 

2. nitidula Fab.— Curt. Brit. But. pi. 724 ? . — Panz. 106. 1 1. 
Male bright metallic green, inclining more or less to blue 

or purple : antennae black, basal joint green, head and thorax 
not thickly punctured ; metathorax deeply and closely punc- 
tured : abdomen shining deep ochreous, the 3d segment, ex- 
cepting the base and the following, bright blue, green, or 
purple, the apex punctured, wings slightly fuscous with a 
cloud on the disc, the nervui'es and stigma piceous: legs 
bright green : tibiae ochreous, the four posterior often piceous, 
excepting the tips : tarsi fuscous. 

Female. Head and thorax cupreous : prothorax ferru- 
ginous-ochre, metathorax bright green : antennae black, 2d 
and 3d joints ochreous : abdomen as in the male : wings with 
a slight cloud at the stigma : legs ochreous, hinder thighs and 
coxae piceous, tarsi fuscous at the apex. 

Taken bv Mr. Paijet on the sand hills near Yarmouth in 
June: Mr. Rudd finds it plentiful in Yorkshire, and it occurs 
also in the New Forest. 

Trinia g^laberrima (Pimpinella dioica), Dwarf Burnet Saxi- 
frage, froni St. Vincent's Rocks, was communicated by G.H.K. 
Thwaites, Esq. 



35 




.-;.-li*J C 






38. 
HEDYCHRUM ARDENS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Tarn. Chrysididse Lat., Leach. 

Type of the Genus C. violaceum Rossi. 

Hedychrum Lat., Leach. Chrysis Limi., Fab., Jurine. 

Antennee inserted close to the margin of the clypeus, genicnlated, 
fusiform, 13-jointed; first joint the longest. (1.) 
Labrum very minute, long, attenuated, ciliated. (2.) 
Mandibles hairy, externally arcuated, with 3 sharp teeth towards 
the apex. (3.) 

Maxillce horny at the base, membranaceous towards the apex, 
ovate, entire, ciliated : Palpi 5 -jointed, longer than the maxillse, 
third joint rather thicker, fourth and fifth rather longer than the 
others. (4.) 

Mentum long, dilated anteriorly : Talpi short, 3 -jointed : Lip 
with the margins conniving externally. (5.) 
Clypeus icith a deep impression bettoeen the eyes, receiving the first joint 
of the antennae. Thorax semi-cylindric, angular, divided by 3 trans- 
verse sutures. Metathorax not elongated into a scutellum. Body 
contractile into a ball. Abdomen attached only by a portion of its 
transverse diameter, semicircular, with the extremity rounded, convex 
above, concave beneath, composed of three joints, the second very large. 
Tarsi ^-jointed. (8.) Superior wings with the marginal cell scarcely 
complete at the apex ; discoidal cells very obscure. Inferior wings 
without distinct nerves. 



Ardens Lat. Coq. Illns. Icon. Ins. dec. 2. p. 59. t. 14./. 7. 

Shining, pubescent. Head and thorax deeply, abdomen minutely 
punctured. Green, centre of head, thorax and abdomen, crimson 
reflecting purple and gold. Posterior angles of thorax blue. 
Under side of abdomen black, sometimes aureous towards the 
base. Wings fuscous, with alternate bands of gi-een and gold at 
the posterior margin. Antennae black, green at the base. Legs 
Si'een. Tarsi rufous. 



a* 



In tJie Cabinets of the British Museum and the Author. 



In a former number (folio 8.) was given the Genus Chrysis ; and 
another group of the same family, separated by Latreille, is the 
subject of the present paper. Although the Hedychri may equal 
the Chrysiflce in splendour, their form is by no means so elegant ; 
the obtuseness and breadth of the abdomen distinguishing 



them at first sight ; and upon further comparison, the absence 
of the transverse hne of impressed dots upon the last joint of the 
abdomen, as well as the great difierence in the mandibles, 
independently of the variation in the wings, excite our astonish- 
ment that Jurine should have rejected a Genus so natural and 
well established. 

Dr. Leach has divided this Genus into those with the apex of 
the abdomen entire, 1. H. pimctatum Leach?; 2. luciduliim 
Geoff. ; 3. ardens Lat. The others notched at the apex, 4, regium 
Geoff. ; 5. violaceum Rossi. There are also in the Museum 
cabinet a species called caruleum and another unnamed. Our 
insect, which was taken several years back in Norfolk, agrees 
tolerably well with Latreille's description, and perfectly with the 
British specimens in the Museum, but not very well with the 
rude and careless figure in Coquebert. Some specimens are twice 
the size indicated in the plate by the crossed lines. 

The habits of this Genus are somewhat dissimilar to those of 
the Chrysidm, being generally found in the sunshine upon the 
leaves of brambles and other bushes, from which they fall upon 
being approached, rolling themselves into a ball. 

The plant figured is Antirrhinum Cymhalaria (Ivy-leaved 
Snapdragon) . 



8 




&Myd€u,du Jimd/m d-c/^yt ^/^''H 






8. 
CHRYSIS FULGIDA. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Chrysiditlge. 

Type of the Genus, Chrysis ignita Linn. 

Chrysis Linn., Fab., Lat., Panz., Jur., Curt., &;c. — Vespa Geoff. 

AntenncE inserted close to the base of the clypeus, subfusiform, geni- 
culated, 13-jointed, basal joint long, robust and slightly hairy, the re- 
mainder velvety, 2nd small, 3rd longer than the following, the re- 
mainder decreasing in length to the apex, the terminal one being very 
small, compressed and subovate (1). 

Labrum transverse, somewhat oval, ciliated with long hairs (2). 
Mandibles elongate-trigonate, slightly hairy externally, bent and acute 
at the apex, with 1 or 2 notches on the inside (3). 
Maxillce furnished with a narrow internal lobe, the external one large, 
suborbicular and pilose, the internal portion thickened and forming a 
slight projecting point on the margin. Palpi rather long pilose and 
5-jointed, basal joint a little shorter than the 2nd and 3rd, the latter 
being dilated, 4th and 5th joints long, the former clavate, the latter 
nearly linear (4). 

Mentum oblong, the sides concave (5 a). Palpi pilose and formed of 
3 short equal joints, the 1st and 2nd subobovate, 3rd scarcely so stout 
and oval (b). Labium subtrigonate, the sides recurved (c). 
Male smaller than the female. Head transverse : face concave. Eyes ovate. 
Ocelli 3 iti triangle. Thorax oblong, collar large, postscutellum broad 
and short, the sides acuminated. Bodv contractile into a ball. Abdomen 
attached by an exceedingly short petiole elongate-ovate, semicylindric, being 
convex above and fiat or concave beneath, composed of 3 segments, the 
2nd very large, the last with a deep transverse suture bearing a row of 
strong punctures, the margin generally dentated. Ovipositor long, com- 
posed of several coriaceous tubes, terminated by 2 strong pilose cylindric 
appendages with an aculeus between them. Superior wings with one large 
perfect marginal cell, submarginal cells imperfect, two discoidal cells, the 
superior one large with a short branch next the limb ; interior wings with 
the nervures very obscure. Legs ; posterior the longest. Thighs short. 
Tibiae short and spurred, anterior with a long dilated spine at the apex. 
Tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint the longest, emarginate on the inside at the 
base, in the anterior pair. Claws and Pulvilli distinct (8). 



FuLGiDA Linn. Faun. Suec. p. 415. n. 1669. — Curtis's Guide, Gen. 659. 1 1 . 
In the Cabinets of the British Museum, Mr. Dale, S;c. 



Nothing can exceed the splendour and brilliancy of the Chrysi- 
didge, which have been compared by Latreille to precious stones, 
and very aptly called by Jurine the Humming-birds of" entomolo- 
gists. It must be confessed that Nature has been lavish in adorn- 

1 



ino- them with such beautiful and effulgent colours, that our asto- 
nisliment and admiration are equally awakened on contemplating 
them. Latreille supposes this splendoiu' may dazzle their enemies 
and so Iticilitate their escape; and this superb armour with which 
they are covered, surpassing any that we have ever read of even in 
romance, appears to be impenetrable and quite equal to resist on 
every side the weapons of an assailant, — nevertheless they seem to 
be timid ; for on touching them they roll themselves up into a 
ball, conscious, apparently, that their armour is their best defence. 
They seem to be supplied with this coat of mail to make amends 
for their weak sting, which being placed at the extremity of a long 
telescopic-formed oviduct is only able to pierce soft bodies; this 
flexible tube they can extend to a very great length : I have seen 
it reach the base of the anterior wings. 

Latreille has very judiciously divided the Chrysididae into seven 
genera, five of which are British ; but Jurine having founded his 
groups upon the form of the cells of the wings, has not adopted 
them. 

Our species of Chrysis may be thus divided. 

* Apex of abdomen producing 4 spines. 

1. C. ignita Linn. Faun. >S«ec. 414. 1665. — Don. Brit. Ins. v.l.pl. 7. — Panz. 5. 22. 
Length from 2 to 7 lines. Yellow or blue green, shining, clothed with 
soft upright gray hairs, thickly and coarsely punctured : antennae velvety 
black, excepting the 2 basal joints which are green : head more or less 
purple or blue on the crown, collar with a spot in the centre and an elon- 
gated mark on each side, of the same colour : thorax variegated with pur- 
ple also : abdomen effulgent, golden crimson, sometimes green on the 
sides and violaceous on the back, down the two first joints of which there 
is an elevated line ; the punctation is generally very coarse at the base, 
fine on the sides and sometimes very minute, thick or vanishing towards 
the apex which is crenated, forming 4 teeth, much more acute in the 
males than females ; nearly at the base of them is a semicircular row of 
from 14 to 18 deep punctures : wings stained brown, nervures piceous : 
legs green : tarsi velvety black : ovipositor frequently exserted, brownish 
ochre, the terminal plate of the abdomen beneath generally black. 

This is one of the most variable insects in size, colour, and sculp- 
ture, and I have little doubt but a considerable number of the fol- 
lowing species are nothing more than extreme varieties. 

The head and thorax are bright green of various hues, variegated 
with deep blue or purple, sometimes entirely of a fine chalybeous 
colour; the body resembles the brightest gold, reflecting most lovely 
imts ot crimson or violet, sometimes eneous or cupreous, and more 
or less encircled with a beautiful yellow green ; the ridge on the 
back of the body sometimes extends nearly to the apex, the punc- 
tures are in some thick and coarse, in others innumerable and mi- 
nute, and again almost vanishing : the teeth at the apex are also 
much less developed in some than in others. 

This msect is distributed over the whole country, and is seen 

2 



when the sun shines running over the sides of walls, posts, and 
sandy banks, from May to the middle of August. 

2. C. affinis Leach. — Sam. — Curfis's Guide. 

About the size of C ignita, and probably only a variety ; the fore and 
hind part of the head, 3 spots on the collar, the mesothorax and scutel- 
lum are blue ; back of the abdomen purplish ; the apex with the teeth 
very short. 

3. C. nitens Ste. — Curtis's Guide. 

4. C. micans Ste. — Curtis's Guide. 

5. C. fulminans Ste. — Curtis's Guide. 

6. C. confinis Ste. — Curtis's Guide. 

These are probably merely varieties of C. ignita, as well as the 
three next. 

7. C. effulgens Leach. — Harris's Exposition, pi. 19. f. 2.? 

Very similar to C. ignita. Mr. Dale has taken it in June and 
July at Glanville's Wootton, Dorset. 

8. C. pulchra Ste. — Curtis's Guide. 

Taken by Mr. Dale at Dawlish, Devon, May 22nd. 

9. C. ephippium Ste. — Curtis's Guide. 

Length 4 lines. Duller than C. ignita, thickly punctured and clothed 
v^rith soft upright gray pubescence ; bright green : antennae velvety black, 
2 basal joints green, crown of the head, a central and 2 lateral spots on 
the collar, the whole of the mesothorax and centre of the scutellum dark 
blue-purple : abdomen with the sides slightly coarctate, with a ridge down 
the back, rather dull golden crimson, the back somewhat blue, the row of 
punctures sometimes irregularly united, teeth rather acute ; beneath green 
to the apex variegated with gold : wings slightly stained with brown, 
the nervures piceous : tarsi velvety black. 

I do not think this is a good species, and it may be the other sex 
of the variety named C. ajfiiiis. Taken by Mr. Dale in June at 
Puddle Town and Glanville's Wootton ; near Cambridge ; at Am- 
bleside, and in the Isle of Bute. 

10. C. aurulenta Ste. — Curtis's Guide. 

Length 3|^ lines. Thickly and rather coarsely punctured, clothed with 
soft long gray pubescence, especially the head ; bright shining green, 
crown of the head and the whole of the mesothorax deep purple : abdo- 
men with an elevated line down the back, golden reflecting crimson, 12 
or 14 punctures surrounding the apex, the central teeth somewhat ap- 
proximating : wings scarcely tinted, nervures piceous : antennae and tarsi, 
excepting the two basal joints of the former, velvety black, underside 
bright green to the apex. 

This insect I have taken near London. 

11. C. fulgida Linn. F. S. 415. IQQ^.—Curt. Brit. Ent.jil. 8.— Pane. 79. 15. 

Shining, deeply and thickly punctured, pubescent ; bright grp°D, varie- 
gated with purple and green : abdomen with an elevated line down the 
back, the 2nd and 3rd joints only aureous, reflecting bright crimson on 
the back, greenish on the sides, apex surrounded by about 16 punctures, 
and furnished with 4 rather acute teeth, beneath green and black : tarsi 
and antennae, excepting the 2 basal joints of the latter, black : wings 
stained brown, nervures piceous. 

3 



The beautiful female represented in the plate was taken with 
other specimens in June at Birch Wood, in Kent, by Mr. Stand- 
ish ; it has also been found on gravelly banks in July at Bexley, in 
the same county, by Mr. Samouelle ; it has likewise occurred in 
Epping Forest; Coombe Wood; Teignmouth, Devon; and Mr. F. 
Walker has met with it at Southgate. 



fe"^ 



12. C. Stoudera Jnr. pi. 12. f. A2.—Panz. 10/, 12. 

Length 3f lines. Slightly shining, pubescent, thickly and strongly punc- 
tured, deep blue-purple, 2nd and 3rd joints of abdomen gold reflecting 
crimson and green, the former with a large orbicular-quadrate purple 
spot, extending from the base beyond the middle ; about IS punctures 
surrounding the apex, which has 4 strong teeth : antenna; and tarsi black, 
excepting the two basal joints of the former : wings slightly stained brown, 
nervures piceous. 

Rare : June, sandy banks near London. 

13. C. bidentata Linn. — Don. 1. 19. — Panz. 77- 15. — dimidiata Fah. 

Length nearly 4 lines. Thickly and strongly punctured, pubescent, 
shining : collar, metathorax and scutellura golden-crimson : abdomen 
with an elevated line down the back, the principal part of the posterior 
portion of the basal, and the whole of the 2nd articulation above, of the 
same colour, apex with a curved line of strong punctures, the apex emar- 
ginate, forming 4 obscure teeth : antennae and tarsi black, except in the 

2 basal joints of the former. 

June, July, and August, at Cambridge ; Bedford ; Dover ; Bide- 
ford, Devon ; and Isle of Portland, J. C. Dale, Esq. I once saw 
it in some abundance going out and into the burrows of an Ody- 
nerus (pi. 137.), on a sunny bank in Darent Wood, probably in 
order to deposit its eggs in those of the Odynerus. 

15. C. inermis Ste. — Curtis's Guide. 

Whether this be a variety of the foregoing species I am unable 
to ascertain. 

16. C. succincta Linn. Syst. Nat. v. 1. pars 2, p. 947. n. 3. — Panz. 77. 16. 

Length 3 lines. Strongly and thickly punctured, pubescent, bright green, 
shining : crown of the head purple : collar variegated with purple : meso- 
thorax golden-green and red : abdomen golden-green, the back crimson, 
apex triemarginate, forming 4 small teeth : wings slightly stained brown, 
nervures piceous : antenna; and tarsi velvety black, the former with the 

3 basal joints green ; a curved line of strong punctures round the apex. 

This rare and beautiful species has been taken by Mr. Dale in 
gravel-pits at West Hurne, Hants, 12th of July 1823; and I think 
I have seen it on a sandy bank in August at Ramsdown, near Heron 
Court, the property of the Earl of Malmesbury. The specimen in 
my possession was communicated to me by Captain Blomer, who 
took it at Bigbury Bay, Devon, 8th of September 1823. It has 
also been observed near Bristol by Mr. Millard. 

* * Apex of abdomen tridentate. 

17. C. cyanea Linn. F. S. 414. 1667.— -Don. 7. 2Zb.~Panz. 51. 10. 

Length 2k to 3j lines. Thickly but not deeply punctured, pubescent, 

4 



glossy, greenish blue, crown of the head purple : thorax variegated with 
the same, 1st and '2nd joints of abdomen black or blue purple above, apex 
with a curved line of strong punctures, biemarginate, forming 3 scarcely 
visible teeth : wings nearly transparent, nervures piceous : antennae and 
tarsi black, basal joint of former green. 

From beginning of June to August, near London ; in Norfolk ; 
Kimpton near Andover; New Forest, and Glanville's Wootton. 
I find this species on old posts and dead trees : and Donovan says 
it is common on fruit-trees. 



* * * 



Apex of abdomen rounded, without teeth. 



18. C. rufa Panz. 79- 16.—Curf. Guide. 

Length 3| lines. Rather robust, dull, exceedingly thickly punctured, pu- 
bescent : head and thorax coarsely punctured, green, crown of the head 
and mesothorax dark blue or purple : abdomen so thickly and minutely 
punctured as to appear like frosted gold reflecting crimson, apex with a 
semicircular line of punctures : wings stained brown, except at the apex, 
nervures piceous : antennse and tarsi velvety black, the former with the 
2 basal joints green. 

End of June, sandy banks and chalk-pits, Darent and Dover, 
Kent; beginning of June on posts, &c., Chesterton near Cambridge, 
and Isle of Portland; also to the end of July, Parley Heath. 
J. C. Dale, Esq. 

19. C. Austriaca Fab. Piez. 173. 15. — radians Harr. Expos, tab. 19. f. 3. 

Length 4J lines. Thickly and coarsely punctured, shining, clothed with 
fuscous pubescence : head and thorax green, variegated with blue : abdo- 
men golden, reflecting crimson, nearly truncated at the apex, with a row 
of small punctures : wings tinged brown, nervures piceous : antennae and 
tarsi velvety black, 3 basal joints of the former green. 

It is remarkable that Fabricius in his essential character, says, 
" the anus is quadridentate;" and in his specific description, which 
immediately follows, he says " that the anus is unarmed." 

From June 7th to July 24th, Bottisham, Cambridgeshire; Glan- 
ville's Wootton and Beaminster, Dorset. J. C. Dale, Esq. 

20. C. cserulipes Fab. Sysf. Piez. 173. 13. — Panz. 107. 11. — cserulescens Fab. 

Ent. Syst.—Coq. tab. 14./. 5.— Leachii Ste. 

Length 4|: lines. Deeply punctured, crimson : metathorax, breast and 

legs blue : antennae black : superior wings stained yellowish brown. 

A single specimen of this fine species is contained in the cabinets 
of the British Museum. I believe it was presented by Dr. Leach. 

21. C. variegata Curtis. 

About 2 lines long : slender, smooth, shining, yellowish green. Head 
dark green : antennae black ; collar and thorax banded with golden red ; 
abdomen with the basal joint golden, red across the middle ; 2nd and 3rd 
joints entirely of that colour : wings slightly fuscous : legs green and 
black. 

This little species reminds us at first sight of C. succincta, but it 
has the apex of the abdomen entire, which is the reason I have not 
adopted the name nttidula, under which it stands with a ? in the 

5 



British Museum ; as Fabricius states that the apex of his insect is 
quadridentate. 

It was taken at Exeter, probably by Dr. Leach. 

The Plant represented is Thlaspi (Capsella Dec.) Bursa Pasto- 
ris (Shepherd's Purse). 



:is 



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752. 
FORMICA RUFA. 

The red, hill, or horse Ant, or Pismire. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. 

Type of the Genus, Formica rufa Linn. 

Formica Linn., 8fC. 

Antenna longer than the thorax in the male (1 ^)'^, filiform, 
slender,geniculated, 13-jointed,basaljoint very long, 2ndslender 
at the base, nearly as long as the following, which slightly de- 
crease in length, apical joint as long as the 3rd ; the tip atte- 
nuated : rather shorter in the female, slightly clavate, 12-joint- 
ed : scarcely so long as the thorax in the neuter (1 9), 12- 
jointed, 2nd joint longer than the 3rd ; the following obovate- 
truncate, increasing in diameter, but decreasing in length, the 
apical joint as long as the 2nd, elongate-ovate. 
Labrum transverse, ciliated, notched and broad in front in the 
male (2), attenuated, with a large triangular notch in the 
neuter (2). 

Mandibles rather small in the male and gaping (3), hairy, con- 
stricted below the middle, dilated above, with a trigonate apex ; 
forming a beak in the neuter, truncated obliquely and serrated, 
the apex elongated (3). 

Maxillae short, the apex rounded, slightly hairy . Palpi 6-jointed, 
hairy, 3 basal joints the stoutest in the male, 1st the shortest, 
2nd longer clavate, 3rd the longest, remainder slender, nearly 
as long as the 2nd (4) : stouter in the neuter, the joints nearly 
of equal length, apical joint slender (4). 

Mentum short : Lip concealed in the male, large and fleshy in the 
neuter. Palpi inserted on each side, hairy and 4 -jointed, basal 
joint pyriform, 2nd and 3rd oblong or obovate, 4th a little the 
• longest in the male, the apex ovate-conic (5). 
Trophi of the female similar to those of the neuter. Head rather small 
in the male, ovate-trigonate : ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown : eyes 
moderate, lateral. Head more quadrate-ovate in the female and 
neuter : ocelli minute : eyes small. Thorax ovate in the male and 
female ; narrow, elongated and constricted in the middle in the neu- 
ter : petiole short, producing a thick vertical scale. Abdomen 
elongate-ovate in the male, large and globose-ovate in the female and 
neuter : sexual organs large and exposed in the male : sting not 
punctorius. Wings ample, superior with 1 marginal, 2 submarginal 
and a discoidal cell or areolet : neuter apterous. Legs moderate 
and slender : thighs simple : tibiae with one slender acute spine at 
the apex of each, dilated in the anterior : tarsi 5 -jointed, basal joint 
long, curved at the base in the anterior, 4th small, subcordate : claws 
strong : pulvilli distinct. 

F. RUFA Linn, — Curt. Guide. Gen., 6G1. 3. 

Male piceous-black : scale rather large, thick and orbicular, the apex 
slightly concave : legs and apex of abdomen bright-ochreous : coxae, base 

* The 5 figures on the right of the plate are dissections of the male, those 
on the left of the neuter ; the coloured figures represent the male, female 
and neuter. 



of thighs, and tips of tarsi, pale piceous : wings with a slight yellowish- 
brown tinge, nervurcs and stigma darker. 

Z^ewa/e ferruginous, top of head and disc of thorax and scutel subpiceous, 
hinder part of thorax flat and oblique ; scale somewhat obtrigonate, with 
the angles rounded : abdomen very glossy, bright pitchy-aeneous, margin 
of the base and bands beneath ferruginous: wings ochreous-brown, 
lighter towards the tips. 

Neuter dull pitchy : head thorax and scale ferruginous : crown chan- 
neled, the whole dull pitchy, clypeus and sides bright ferruginous, a 
purplish brown spot on the disc of the thorax, and a smaller one on the 
scutel : base of abdomen sometimes ochreous : legs often inclining to cas- 
taneous, trochanters ferruginous. 

The history of the industrious and provident ant has been 
familiar to every one from the earliest ages, and the more re- 
cent researches of Huber on this subject are highly interest- 
ing. I am sorry that a summary of their oeconomy is the ut- 
most that my space will afford, but the amusing account given 
b}^ Kirby and Spence will supply the deficiency. 

Each species of ant comprises three different sorts, namely, 
the males, females, and neuters: there are sometimes two va- 
rieties of these last, varying in size : they form nests in the 
earth or under stones, and their sagacity, their unceasing in- 
dustry, their perseverance in overcoming difficulties, and the 
care they evince for their progeny, are wonderful, and well 
deserving the attention of man. 

The female ant lays from 4000 to 5000 eggs; those of the 
neuters are the smallest; they produce maggots that live a 
twelvemonth or upwards ; these become pupae, in which state 
the males and neuters remain 4 and the females 6 weeks ; they 
are inclosed in oval whitish cocoons, which are erroneously 
called ants' eggs, and it is these we see them carrying off' to 
a place of security when they are disturbed; the ants also 
bring them to the surface for warmth, or heap them up in the 
nests. The males and females are generally few in number 
compared to the workers, yet they are occasionally found in 
myriads ; the latter are often deprived of their wings, being 
pulled off* either by themselves or by the neuters, in order that 
they may not depart from the nest, and they then work like 
neuters. Gould says this does not happen till they become 
mothers. Ants are chiefly nourished by the saccharine fluid 
from Aphides (pi. 576 and 577), and they remain in their 
nests through the winter in a torpid state. The males and 
females swarm from Midsummer to Michaelmas, and the neu- 
ters bite with their serrated jaws, but none of the British species 
sting. Of these, eleven have been recorded in the Guide, 
but I have only seen indigenous examples of 5 of them. The 
species figured forms a large nest of straws, sticks, leaves, and 
other convenient materials : they are very partial to oak-woods 
and fir-groves, the leaves of the coniferae supplying them with 
admirable and very portable building materials : they seem to 
be at work day and night from March to the end of October : 
the males and females are conmionly found in June and July. 



I 



^6s 








265. 
MYRMECINA LATREILLII. 



> 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae Z/e«c7i. Formicarise 

Type of the Genus Myrmecina Latreillii Nob. 

Myrmecina Nobis. 

Antennce inserted in the middle of the face, remote, longer than 
the head and thorax, geniculated, hairy ; 13-jointed, basal joint 
short, but twice as long- as the 2nd, which is subglobose, the 
3rd and following oblong, those beyond the 5th being rather 
obovate-truncate, terminal joint the longest, elongate-conic (1). 
Labrum large and exserted, coriaceous, dilated at the base, each 
side producing a small lobe beneath ; anterior margin rounded 
and notched, with a few bristles and ciliated (2). 
Mandibles none, at least in the male. 

Maxillce large and dilated, terminated by a broad membranous 
and ciliated lobe, meeting behind the mentum when at rest. 
Palpi rather long and slender, 4-jointed, basal joint the smallest, 
2nd and 3rd of nearly equal length, 4th long subfusiform (4), 
Mentum subovate, truncated at the base, with an arched suture 
towards the top. Lip none ? Palpi rather long and slender, 
triarticulate, 1st and 2nd joints nearly of equal length, the 3rd 
longer and subfusiform (5). 
Head subglobose. Eyes globose. Ocelli very prominent, forming a 
large triangle. Thorax ovate. Metathorax bidentate. Peduncle 
biarticulate, 2nd joint the largest and globose. Abdomen ovate- 
conic, 5-jointed, basal joint covering the greater portion of the body. 
Wings with a trigonate stigma, the marginal cell pedicled at the 
apex; one discoidal cell, and the apical nervures obscure. Legs rather 
long. Thighs long, slender, dilated in the middle. Tibiae short, an- 
terior producing a pectinated spine. Tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint as 
long as the tibia, the remainder oblong. Claws small, Pulvilli di- 
stinct (8, afore leg). 
Obs. All the figures and descriptions were taken from a male. 



Latreillii Nobis. 

Smooth, shining, piceous black ; sparingly clothed with hairs. 
Eyes black. Head and thorax with a few punctures. Antennae 
and legs ferruginous, thighs and tibiae piceous in the middle. 
Wings very iridescent, yellowish fuscous, stigma and nervures 
brown. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



The only specimens I have ever seen of this little insect were 
all males, which I swept off rushes the middle of August and 
beginning of September, at the back of the Isle of Wight, 
where they were flying about ; and having been unsuccessful 
in searching for the females and neuters, I am induced to 
publish the materials I possess, hoping that it may lead to the 
discovery of the sexes. 

Myrmecina is nearly related to Myrmica, of which genus I 
would willingly have made it a division ; but the short basal 
joint of the antennae, the different nervation of the wings, and 
above all, the absence of the mandibles, rendered this desirable 
object impracticable. The labrum also is remarkable for hav- 
ing the basal angles thickened and produced ; and these I am 
almost disposed to think are modifications of mandibles. 

This nondescript insect I have the pleasure of dedicating 
to my esteemed friend Mons. Latreille, whose investigation of 
the family to which it belongs, as well as his numerous valu- 
able works on Entomology, have contributed so effectively to 
the philosophical advancement of Science. 

The beautiful plant represented is LatJiyrus sylvestris (Wild 
Lathyrus), it grows luxuriantly on the sloping cliff between 
Bonchurch and Luccomb Chine, and spontaneously orna- 
ments the elegant grounds of James Vine, Esq. at Puckaster 
Cove in the Isle of Wight. 



77 






%/-Jy(J:€u'>J!u. .£nJ.^ 'Ju^y /■ m-i' 



77. 
MUTILLA EPHIPPIUM. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Mutilladae Lat.^ Leach. 

Type of the Genus Mutilla Europsea Linn. 

MuTiLLA Linn., Fab., Lat., Leach, &;c. 

Antennce distant, somewhat fusiform, much longer than the head, 
13-jointed in the males, 12-jointed in the females, 1st joint long, 
hairy, incurved, not receiving the 2nd, which is small, cup-shaped, 
the 3rd obconic, 4th and following nearly of equal length (fig. 1). 
Lahrum nearly concealed by the clypeus, transverse, coriaceous, 
ciliated, and producing a few long bristles near its base (2). 
Mandibles exserted, long, narrowed near the base, tridentate (3). 
Maxilla: long, terminal lobe minute, rounded, ciliated, membrana- 
ceous : Palpi very long, hairy, 6-jointed, 1st joint bent, 2nd di- 
lated, remainder somewhat long, the last slender cylindric (4). 
Mentum corneous, trigonate elongated (5 a) : Palpi as long as 
the mentum, to the anterior angles of which they are attached, 
|>ubescent, 4-jointed, 1st joint bent, clavate, 2nd and 3rd com- 
pressed, the latter somewhat rhomboidal, 4th long slender cylin- 
dric (b) : Lip coriaceous, very short, hollow, completely con- 
cealed behind the mentum. 
Clypeus produced, emarginate. Head globose. Ocelli 3 in the males 
alone. Thorax of the male venj convex with a transverse suture 
and scutellum ; of the female cubical without transverse sutures 
and scutellum. Abdomen attached by a short peduncle, ovate, 2nd 
segment large, somewhat campanulate. Wings of males pubescent, 
stigmata celluliform, marginal cell remote from the apex, submargi- 
nalcellsS. Females apterous ; armed with a sting. Anterior legs 
short, with a long, compressed, membranaceous spine at the apex of 
the tibicE, the 4 posterior tibia spurred (8 afore leg). 



Ephippium Fab. Ent. Syst. v. 2. p. 370. n. 18. mas. — rufipes. Fab. Ent. 
Syst. 2. 372. 26. fern. 

Male black, shining, pilose with long whitish hairs. Head some- 
what minutely punctured. Thorax and scutellum brick-colour, 
anterior margin black extending in the centre as far as the su- 
ture, strongly punctured ; metathorax very coarsely punctured. 
Abdomen strongly punctured. Wings stained yellowish fus- 
cous with alternate fascia of red and green next the poste- 
rior margin. — Female black glossy. Head thickly punctured. 
Neck, thorax, peduncle and basal joint of abdomen brick- 
colour, thorax coarsely punctured. Abdomen minutely punc- 
tured, rufous at the apex and the margins of the segments, 
which appear silvery from the denseness of the hair, as well as 
a spot on the 2nd segment. Antennae and legs rufous, the 
former fuscous towards the apex. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



Although the Miitillada bear considerable resemblance to 
the Formkadce their economy is totally different, the latter 
livino- in societies exliibiting males, females, and nenters, which 
last only are apterons ; the former being solitary, having no 
neuters, the males only being furnished with wings. It is un- 
necessary to go any further into the differences of the two 
families. The female MutillcE want the little eyes upon the 
crown of the head, as well as the wings with which the males 
are furnished ; and the eyes and thorax are very differently 
formed. Jurine has justly observed " What is the object of 
Nature in establishing such disparities, and where is the utility 
of it ? These are problems that we cannot resolve, because of 
our ignorance of the history of these insects, but which well 
deserve the attention of naturalists." It is well known that they 
inhabit sandy districts, and it is probable the females form 
their nests and deposit their eggs in such situations, wliich 
employment would render wings and ocelli of little use; whereas 
the males, which may be less numerous than the other sex, 
are supplied with wings to enable them to go in search of the 
females, as is frequently the case amongst the Lepidoptera 
and other orders. 

We are able to record at present only three species of this 
beautiful genus as inhabitants of Britain : 1 . M. Eiiropcea Linn. ; 
2. calva Fab.; 3. Ephippium Fab. The first is common in 
sandy lanes and foot-paths in June, — it is figured in Donovan's 
Brit. Ins. v. 6. p. 212.; the second, (in the cabinet of Mr. 
Stephens,) is figured in Coquebert's Icon. Ins. tab. 16. f. 10. 
Latreille and many other entomologists have long suspected 
M. Ephippium and M. rujipes to be the sexes of the same 
species, since we only know the males of the one, and the 
females of the other : as such I have ventured to give them, 
having found both insects in this country, — the female in a 
gravel-pit, and the male flying over a sunny bank near 
Shooter's-hill, Kent, the 15th June 1822. 

Brywn suhulatum (Awl-shaped Screw-moss) is figured in 
the plate. 



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ci2^4.c/?C*^ Oo/.-if'fsao 



7-n 3^ 

329. 
METHOCA ICHNEUMONIDES. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Mutillidae Lat., Leach. 
Type of the Genus, Methoca ichneumonides Lat. 
Methoca Lat., Lea., Curt. — Mutilla Jur. 

AntenncB inserted at the base of the clypeus, longer than the 
head, curved, nearly filiform, pubescent, 12-jointed, basal joint 
short and very robust, 2nd the shortest, remainder oblong, 
slightly decreasing in length to the last, which is elongate-ovate 

Labrum inserted under the clypeus, transverse oval, ciliated and 
producing a few long bristles (2). 

Mandibles long, slender, slightly curved, bidentate at the apex, 
clothed with many long bristles (3). 

MaxillcE small, terminated by a minute semilunular ciliated lobe. 
Palpi long, pilose, 6-jointed, basal joint rather the shortest, 4th 
the longest, 2nd and 3rd a little stouter than the others (4). 
Mentum convex oblong, rounded before. Lip none, or very mi- 
nute. Palpi rather long and pilose, inserted on each side the 
mentum close to the fore-part, 4-jointed, 1st joint slender at the 
base, terminal one a little the longest (5)* 
Head large subglobose. Eyes lateral oval. Ocelli 3 in triangle on the 
crown. Trunk nodose, formed of 3 segments, the 1st or prothorax 
obovate, the 2nd or mesothorax smaller and oblong bearing aji ovate 
scutellum, the 3rd or metathorax ovate, not larger than the meso- 
thorax. Wings none. Abdomen ovoid, attached by a short pedun- 
cle, acute at the apex which is slightly incurved, and armed with a 
sting, 2nd and 3rd segments very large. Legs strong. Coxae large. 
Thighs a little robust. Tibiae ; anterior with a long pectinated spine 
at the apex. Tarsi long, 5 -jointed, basal joint very long, 4th small- 
est. Claws bent and acute (8). 



Ichneumonides Za^. Hist. Nat.v.\3.p.269. — Curtis'sGuide,Gen.666. 
— formicaria Jur. pi. 13. 

Female. Bright ochraceous, shining with scattered punctures and 
pubescence. Antennae fuscous towards the apex. Head and 
abdomen black, the latter ochreous and hairy at the apex. Legs 
hairy, base of the thighs and tips of the tarsi rather piceous. 

In the Cabinet of the Author. 



The only British insects with which Methoca might be con- 
founded are the females of Mutilla and Myrmosa, and the 
apterous Ichneumonidae (Pezomachus Grav.); the peculiar 
form of the thorax will however at once distinguish our insect 
from the rest ; and it is further separated from the females of 
the first by the ocelli, and from the Pezomachi by the fewer 
joints of the antennae, independent of the 6-jointed maxillary 
palpi and other differences in the trophi. 

The specimen from which the drawing was made is, I be- 
lieve, the only British one discovered, and has never been re- 
corded as a native of this country, excepting in the Guide. I 
took it the 30th July 1828, running upon a mass of sand-stone 
ascending Black-gang Chine in the Isle of Wight. I looked 
in vain for another, and was not more successful in my search 
for the Tengyra Sanvitali. It is to the liberality of a most 
zealous and distinguished entomologist at Lyons, Mons. Fou- 
dras, that I am indebted for a specimen of this insect to dis- 
sect, as well as for the Tengyra and other rarities. 

Latreille says that the Methoca is found running upon the 
ground in fields in the South of France, but vei'y rarely: 
Mons. Foudras has taken it near Lyons with Tengyra Sanvi- 
tali, which he believes to be the male, and the same opinion 
having been entertained I believe in the 7th vol. of the Annales 
du Musee, I shall subjoin the characters, partly from Latreille's 
Gcn.Crust. v. 4. ^.116, with additions from my own observa- 
tion. 
Tengyra. 

AiitenncB of the male shorter than the body, subsetaceous, 
composed of 13 joints, the 2nd very minute. 

Ocelli three. 

Mcmdihlcs bidentate. 

Palpi, maxillary long, the joints unequal. 

Labium truncated at the apex, subemarginate (trifid, lateral 
laciniae very short ?). 

Me7itum with the apex subacuminate in the middle. 

Wings, superior with the marginal cell closed, nearly touch- 
ing the apex, narrow, subelliptic, and acute, 3 perfect sub- 
marginal cells, the 1st and the 2 discoidal cells long. 

Abdomen elongated and narrow, subfusiform, the annula- 
tions slightly coarctate. 

Feet short and slender. 
Sanvitali Lat. 

Black, shining, pubescent : clypeus carinated ; trunk punc- 
tured, mesothorax rugose ; stigma and nervures piceous ; 
abdomen very shining. 

Found in Etruria, in the fields of Piedmont, and near Paris 
and Lyons. 

The plant is Galium cmciatum (Cross- wort or Mug- weed). 



66,/ 




\ 



664. 
TIPHIA MINUTA. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Scoliadae. 

Type of the Genus, Tiphia femorata Fab. 

TiPHiA Fab., Lat., Panz., Jur., Vand. L., Shuck., Curt. — Bethyllus 
Panz. 

Antenna inserted at the base of the clypeus, approximating, a 
little longer than the head, filiform or subfusiform, a little curved 
and 13-jointed in the males, basal joint the stoutest, subovate, 
2nd small, cup-shaped, 3rd a little larger, the remainder sub- 
quadrate, apical joint a little longer and ovate-conic ; more 
curved and 12-jointed in the female, the apical joint consider- 
ably longer than the 11th (1). 

Labrum small, concealed under the clypeus, pocket-shaped, the 
anterior margin ciliated or pectinated with long stout spines, 
the 2 central ones very long (2). 

Mandibles crossing, long, rather slender, curved and acute, hairy 
outside (3). 

Maxillce with a horny base and a large hairy lobe on the inside. 

Palpi attached to the upper margin of the horny portion, long, 

hairy, and composed of 6 unequal joints, 1st joint bent at the 

base, 2nd and 3rd the stoutest, cleaver- shaped, the former the 

shortest, the following long and subclavate, tapering, the apical 

joint being the slenderest and conical at the point (4). 

Mentum top-shaped, hiding the Lip, which is very short. Palpi 

stout hairy and4-jointed, basal joint the slenderest, clavate with 

a spine outside, 2nd truncated obliquely, 3rd more pear-shaped, 

4th ovate-conic (5). 

Head transverse, not broader than the thorax ; face orbicular ; eyes 

lateral ovate : ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown. Thorax ovate, 

collar ample ; scutel lunate ; metathorax truncated. Abdomen 

ovate-conic, basal joint campanulate, -petiole short and stout with a 

tooth on each side. Wings, superior with one marginal, 2 submar- 

ginal and 3 discoidal cells, the 1st complete in the male, open in the 

female (9) with the apex of the wing notched. Legs short and stout, 

very spiny and hairy in the female (8) : thighs, posterior very short, 

incrassated and compressed in the female : tibiae short, ivith long 

slender spurs and series of short thick spines outside the 4 posterior 

in the female : tarsi rather short and 5-jointed, tapering and very 

bristly in the female : claws short and bifid. (8, afore leg.) 



MiNUTA Valid. Lind. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 667. 3. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale, Mr. Shuckard, and the Author. 



The Scoliidae form a very extensive family inhabiting warm 
latitudes and the tropics. On the sandy shores of the Medi- 
terranean, especially near Frejus, I found a considerable num- 
ber of species, but none inhabit Great Britain or the North of 
Europe that I am aware of, excepting the genus Tiphia, for 
^^IVJg^i pl- 532, is evidently a distinct family, and Tcngyra 



Ul 



being the male of Methoca, pi. 329, must be united to the 
Mutillidae. 

The male Tiphiae are often found resting on the ground, 
especially in sandy districts, and the females frequent umbel- 
liferous and other flowers. The difference in the marginal 
cell, which is closed in the male, as shown in our coloured 
figure, and open in the female, as represented at fig. 9, forms 
a remarkable character in this group. 

1. femorata Fab. — Panz. 53. 3. — Jur.pl. 9. Gen. 11. — villosa 
Fab.$.—Panz. 98. 16. 

Black, shining, pubescent, metathorax with 3 elevated lines, 
the central one abbreviated, legs rufous in the female, anterior 
pair brown ; wings pale reddish-brown : length 2i to 5 lines. 
Latreille says this insect makes its nest in the earth at the 
end of summer. It is a common and variable species ; some* 
times the legs are red in the male and black in the female. 

Taken in Norfolk, Birch Wood, the New Forest ; August, 
Parley and Charmouth, Mr. Dale; on the beach at Bourne- 
mouth, the Honourable C. A. Harris; and on flowers near 
Dover in July, J. C. 

2. Morio Fab.?— Panz. 55. 1. 

" Black, villose and punctured ; apex of the mandibles ru- 
fescent. The metathorax rugose, without the longitudinal 
elevated lines ; the wings with their stigma very large, and 
their nervures piceous. The abdomen very villose and 
shining : length 5 lines." Shnck. 
The male in the British Museum is believed to have been 

taken in Devonshire by Dr. Leach. The Fabrician specimen 

was from Spain. 

3. minuta Vand. Lind. — Curt. Brit. Fnt. pi. 66^. (?. 

Male. Intense black ; shining and pubescent ; palpi brown, 
apex of mandibles ferruginous ; metathorax with 3 complete 
elevated lines ; abdomen very finely punctured : wings 
stained brown ; nervures deeper, stigma large ovate and 
piceous; apexof anterior tibiae ferruginous, their tarsi more 
ochreous, tips of the other tibiae and all the tarsi sometimes 
ferruginous ; spurs whitish : antennae reddish brown be- 
neath in the female, mandibles rufous only at the middle ; 
apex of abdomen pitchy-red. 

The neuration of the wings varies greatly in this little spe- 
cies, as shown by Mr. Shuckard, who has taken several speci- 
mens on Hampstead Heath, and Mr. Dale finds it in abun- 
dance atGlanville's Wootton on grass and laurels, from the end 
of March to June. He informs me that he took a ^th species 
on the sand-hills at Braunton Burrows in Devon the end of 
July. I observed the male of F. femorata in considerable 
numbers on the sand-hills at Boulogne the end of August, but 
not one female ! 

The Plant is Thalictrum minus., Less Rue -weed, from Arn- 
cliffj communicated by Mr. T. Howson. 



JIIc' 






C^. 4. rj, C:,i^cX». /: /rfcJcT 



)^^ JIBS' 
532. 

SAPYGA CLAVICORNIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Sapygidas. 

Type of the Genus, Scolia 5-punctata Fah. 

Sapyga Lat., Jur., King., Van Lin., Curt. — Hellus Fab., Panz. — 
Masaris Panz. — Scolia and Sirex Fab. — Vespa Geof. — Apis 
Linn., Don. 

Antennce remote, inserted near the middle of the face, as long 
as the head and thorax, clavate, especially in the males, and 
13-jointed : 12-jointed in the females (1), basal joint the lon- 
gest and stoutest, 2nd cup-shaped, 3rd slenderer, the remainder 
gradually increasing in diameter and decreasing in length, the 
1 1th joint being nearly quadrate, 1 2th short and ovate. 
Labrum minute and concealed beneath the clypeus, forming a 
tongue-shaped membranous lobe, coriaceous and ciliated at the 
apex (2 /). 

Mandibles a little porrected, very hairy, slightly curved, with 3 
strong teeth in both (3). 

MaxillcB rather long, terminated by an ovate incurved lobe, with 
a notch on both sides near the apex, which forms an ovate lobe, 
ciliated with strong bristles. Palpi much longer than the lobe, 
slender and 6-jointed, the 2nd being the shortest and the 3rd 
a little the longest (4) . 

Mentum long linear and slightly compressed. Labium composed 
of 2 short pointed and pubescent lobes. Palpi bent back, com- 
posed of 4 clavate joints of nearly equal length, the apical one 
being fusiform (4). 
Clypeus sinuated, and bidentate at the centre (2) .- head thick and or- 
bicular, with an elevated line between the antenna : eyes lateral the 
inner margin notched : ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown of the head. 
Thorax elongate-ovate sloped and rounded behind, anterior margin 
truncated and a little concave, collar forming a perfect band : scu- 
tellum semiovate. Abdomen very much narrowed at the base, elon- 
gate-ovate, conical at the apex, female armed with a sting. Wings, 
superior with 1 marginal, 4 submarginal and 3 discoidal cells. Legs 
simple, rather short and slender : thighs short : tibiae, anterior 
short and clavate, with a bifid compressed spine at the apex, the 
others with a pair of acute spurs : tarsi attenuated, 5 -jointed, basal 
joint the longest, 4th minute : claws with a small tooth beneath : 
pulvilli minute (8, afore leg). 

Clavicornis Linn. — prisma Fab. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 668. 2. 
In the Cabinets of Mr. Shuckard, the Author, 8;c. 

Sapyga is a remarkable Insect; its ample collar reminds us 
of the Chrysidae, but in general aspect as well as in the shape 
of the palpi and the form of the maxillary lobe, rounded and 
reflected, we cannot fail from drawing a comparison with Hy- 
laius (pi. 373) and the Andrenidae : it appears, however, to be 
most related to the Mutillidaa and Scoliidae, and like them 
the females have the power of stinging very acutely. 

Dr. Klug says these Insects frequent flowers in meadows 



and fields and fly swifdy : there are only 2 species inhabitants 
of England, although from the sexes being so very dissimilar 
in one, and the body of the male varying greatly in the num- 
ber of the spots, they have been described by Fabricius and 
others under a variety of names, as 

1. S. 4-guttata Fab. Spec. Ins. — 6-guttata Fah. Ent. Syst. var. 

— 6-punctata Fab. Sj/st. Picz. — 10-guttata Jwr. j?/. 9.f. 13. 

— 4-punctataP«?i2;. 87.20.; Males. — S-punctataivz^;. Spec. 

Ins. — Pacca Fab. Mant. Ins. — 5-guttata Don. 13. 438.; 

females. — punctata Khig. Mon. tab. l.Jig. 4, 5, 6. — Panz. 

100. 17? of this reference I am doubtful, and there are 

too many joints in the antennae. 
Male black ; antennae with a ^e\v of the central joints fer- 
ruginous beneath ; clypeus and a stripe on the anterior tibiae 
white; 3rd and 4th, and sometimes the 2nd and 5th segments 
of the abdomen with a white spot on each side, with similar 
spots occasionally on the underside. Female often having 3 
white dots on the head, and one on each shoulder, 2nd and 
3rd segments of abdomen rufous, 4th and 5th with a white 
spot on each side, 6th with one at the apex. 

I never saw so many of this insect as on the 11th of June, 
at Ambleside, in company with Mr. Dale, when the females 
were flying about the stone walls in plenty; but the males were 
comparatively rare, and were settling on the ground at the 
base of the walls: I have found this sex also at the back of 
the Isle of Wight; Mr. Donovan took it at Faversham in 
Kent; Mr. Walker at Southgate in July; and Capt. Blomer 
in the New-forest. 

2. S. clavicornis Linn. Faun. Succ. n. 1686. — Curt. Brit. Ent. 

pi. 532 (J. — prisma Fab. — Klug. tab. I.f. 7 and 8. — cra- 
broniformis Panz. 47. 22 ? . 

iS/Lale black, very thickly punctured and pubescent, antenna? 
long and clubbed, underside, excepting the 3 basal and 2 apical 
joints, ochreous; clypeus, a dot on each shoulder, a dot at the 
apex, 2 spots on the 2nd segment and an interrupted band 
on the 3rd and 4th, yellow, a stripe on the outside of the an- 
terior, and a spot at the base of the other tibiae of the same 
colour. Female with the clypeus black, 2 yellow dots between 
the antennae, which are clavate only, and the apical joint alone 
ferruginous beneath and at the tip : wings dusky ; abdomen 
similar to the male, but with 4 yellow spots beneath. 

I am happy in being able to restore Linnasus's name to this 
species, the specimen contained in his cabinet being a male, 
with a label of his own writing. 

Females were observed bv Mr. G. Newman in the autumn, 
in considerable numbers, settling on the leaves of a Morella 
cherry-tree in a garden near Leominster, and also by Dr. 
Howitt near Nottingham : for the loan of the male I am in- 
debted to Mr. Shuckard, who has also obligingly added the 
other sex to my Cabinet. 

The Plant is Hicracium Pilosclla (Mouse-ear Hawk-weed). 



^8 







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6~- )%Zi 

238. 

POMPILUS RUFIPES. 



Order Hynienoptera. Fam. Pompilidse Za^., Leach. 

Type of the Genus Pompilus viaticus Fab. 

PoMPiLUS Fab., Lot., Panz., Jur. — Sphex Linn., DeG. — Psammo- 
charus Lat. 

Antennae inserted between the eyes, below the middle of the face, 
curved, filiform and 13-jointed in the males (1), basal joint large, 
2nd minute, the remainder slightly decreasing in length to the 
end, the terminal joint being subovate j attenuated convoluted 
at the apex and slightly serrated in the females, 12-jointed, the 
3rd joint the longest. 

Labrum scarcely exserted, short and broad, anterior margin con- 
cave, the angles truncated and very pubescent, the front pro- 
ducing long and rigid bristles (2), 

Mandibles slender, internally concave, pilose on the outside, 2 
teeth on the inner margin towards the apex, stronger in one 
than in the other (3). 

MaxillcB broad and much longer than the mentum and lip, ter- 
minated by 2 lobes, the lower one ciliated, the terminal one 
large rounded and pilose outside. Palpi very long, 6-jointed, 
basal joint small, the 3rd the most robust, the others nearly as 
long, the last the slenderest (5). 

Mentum obovate, producing a few bristles towards the top. Palpi 

long (but shorter than the maxillary), 4-jointed, basal joint the 

longest subclavate, 2nd scarcely so long, 3rd and 4th shorter, of 

equal length, obovate. Labium very short. Paraglossce rather 

longer than the lip, slightly hooked and pilose (5). 

Males much smaller than the females. Head transverse, orbicular. 

Eyes remote. Ocelli 3 in triangle. Thorax oblong ,- postscutellum 

rounded. Abdomen sessile, slender and subfusiform in the males; 

conical robust and armed with a sting in the females. Superior 

wings with 1 marginal and 3 submarginal cells, the stigma nearly 

obsolete. Legs long, first pair the shortest. Thighs of the 1st pair 

attenuated to the apex. Tibiae short and furnished with very lonr^ 

spurs. Tarsi long 5-jointed, basal joint considerably the longest, 4th 

the shortest. Claws somewhat bifid and ciliated internally. Pulvilli 

large (8, afore leg.) 



RuFiPES Linn. Faun. Suec. p. 413. n. 1659. 

Black, with hoary pubescence. Abdomen smooth and naked 
slightly pubescent only at the base and apex ; the males with 2 
cream-coloured spots at the base of the 3rd segment ; the females 
with 2 also at the base of the 2nd, and rarely with one on each 
side of the 4th ; an apical spot of the same colour. Wings dusky, 
fuscous at their extremity. Thighs of intermediate legs ferru- 
ginous at the tips, the posterior legs with the thighs and tibiee 
bright ferruginous, the former black at the base. Anterior tarsi 
of the females ciliated externally with long moveable lanceolate 
bristles. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



The Pompili inhabit sandy situations exposed to the sun ; 
and we learn from Latreille that they bury a spider or cater- 
pillar in a cell formed in such places, and close the aperture, 
having previously laid an egg, which is nourished when 
hatched by the insect inclosed with it. 

The Pompili (as the same author observes) are very active, 
they are continually flying from one place to another ; they 
run also very rapidly, and often vibrate their wings and an- 
tennae. The reader will be amused by referring to Kirby and 
Spence, vol. i. p. 339 or 344. 

The following is the best list that has appeared of our native 
species, but there are probably eight or ten more unnamed : 
those with * have never before been recorded as British. 

1. fuscus Fab. — Panz. 65. 15. — June; common everywhere. 

2. gibbus Lhin. — Panz. 77. 13. — June to end of Aug. ditto. 

3. exaltatus Fab. — Panz. 86. 10. — June to b. Aug. : sandy 

paths amongst heath. 

4. viaticus Fab. — Panz. 65. 16. — June to b. Sept.: sandy 

places, and amongst heath and rushes. 

*5. pulcher Fab. — Coq. t. \2.f. 8. — m. Aug. : gravelly paths, 
Ramsdown, Hants, discovered by the Honourable 
C. A. Harris. 

*6. riigex Fab. — Panz. 71. 19. — e. Aug., Sept.: Braunton- 
burrows, Devon, and Isle of Wight. 
7. hircanus Fab. — Panz. 87. 21. — m. May : Coomb Wood. 

*8. rufipes Linn. — Panz. 65. 17. — This very distinct and 
handsome species has been added to our Fauna by the 
Honourable Charles A. Harris, who took it at Rams- 
down near Heron Court, Hampshire ; and having 
kindly presented me with specimens, and taken me to 
the spot where they were found, I had the pleasure of 
capturing the beautiful variety of the female repre- 
sented in the plate. 

*9. bipunctatus i^aZ». — Panz. 72. 8. — tripunctatus ? Coq. t. 3. 
f. 10. — In the British Museum. 

10. annulatus Fab. — Panz. 76. 16. — Sa7n. Ent. Comp. p. 274. 
*11. punctum Fab. — Panz. 86. 12. 

The pretty plant figured, Chironia Centaurium (Common 
Centaury), was in flower at the time the insect was taken. 







c'^^^. r.//^,. 



756. 
CEROPALES VARIEGATUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Pompilidae. 

Type of the Genus, Ceropales maculatus. Fab, 

Ceropales Lat., Fab., Jur., Van Lin., Shuck., Curt. — Pompilus 
Panz. — Ichneumon Geof. — Evania Fab. 

Antennce inserted in the middle of the face, approximating, not 
much longer than the thorax, filiform, simply curved in both 
sexes and indistinctly articulated, 13-jointed in the male, 12- 
jointed in the female (1), basal joint short, stout and ovate, 2nd 
small, cup-shaped, the following oblong, 3rd not longer than 
the 4th, terminal joint ovate. 

Labrum exserted, semiorbicular, cilia line and short (2). 
Mandibles slender, curved and bifid, the inner tooth small, pi- 
lose and slightly bristly outside (3). 

Maxilla terminated by a broad bristly rounded lobe. Palpi long 
pubescent and 6-jointed, basal joint not verjr short, pyriform- 
truncate, 2nd longer and stouter, 3rd the stoutest and as long 
as the following which are slenderer, apical joint rounded at 
the tip (4). 

Mentum short, rhombiform. Palpi short and attached on each 
side of the anterior margin, pubescent and 4-jointed, joints 
nearly equal, elongate-obovate, 2nd truncated obliquely, 4th 
ovate-conic. Lip large orbicular, slightly ciliated (5). 
Head transverse, as broad as the thorax : eyes lateral, moderate, ovate : 
ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown. Thorax oblong ; collar angu- 
lated : scutel gibbose, semiovate. Abdomen short, narrowed at the 
base, sometimes elliptical and narrower than the thorax in the male, 
the apex truncated; stouter and ovate-conic in t he female : oviposi- 
tor visible and elevated. Wings, superior with 1 marginal and 4 
submarginal cells, the Ind and Zrd receiving each a recurrent ner- 
vure. Legs, anterior short, hinder very long : coxae large : thighs 
moderate : tibiae, anterior with 1 , the others with 2 rather long spurs 
at the apex : tarsi very long, simple in both sexes, basal joint the 
longest, 4th the shortest : claws curved acute : pulvilli large, undi- 
vided (8, afore leg). 



Variegatus Fab. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 670. 3. 

In the Cabinets of the British Museum and Mr. Rudd. 



The females of this genus are readily distinguished from those 
of Pompilus (pi. 238) by their antennae, which are not convo- 
luted, but simply curved like those of the male ; the anterior 
feet are also simple, and not ciliated with long spiny bristles, 
and the ovipositor is a little exserted ; the males are less easily 
separated, but on an examination of the trophi, very decided 
differences will be found in the labrum and mandibles. 



i 



The Ceropales are supposed to be parasitic, depositing 
their eggs in the larvae of other fossorial Hymenoptera. 

1. maculata Fab. — frontalis Pa?iz. 72. 9. ? . 

Black : clypeus and labrum in the male, and orbits of eyes 
in the female cream-colour : a band on the collar and a 
spot on the scutel of the same colour : 1st abdominal seg- 
ment with 2 cream-coloured spots, margin of the 2nd and 
apex white : legs ferruginous ; coxae, hinder thighs and apex 
of tibias and tarsi more or less brown. 1 

Middle of August, Norfolk, and Heron Court, Hants, on 

umbelliferous flowers ; also in Kent, Surrey, and Wales as 

late as September, Mr. F. Walter. 

2. semiannulatus Curt. Guide, No. 2. Length 2f lines. 
Black, inner orbits of eyes, margin of 2nd abdominal seg- 
ment, interrupted in the centre, and apex cream-colour : 
legs rufous, coxae, trochanters, base and apex of the 4 pos- 
terior thighs and terminal half of hinder tibiae black, tarsi 
brown. 

This female was taken by me in Norfolk ; it may prove to 
be only a small variety of C. maculata. J 

3. variegatus Fab. — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 756. (?. 

Male black, smooth, exceedingly minutely and thickly 
punctured, slightly silky with short pile : 2 basal joints of 
antennae beneath and face cream-colour, the latter with a 
black stripe under the antennae, a dot on each side of the 
collar, and the hinder margin, as well as a spot behind the 
scutel, of the same colour: metathorax whitish with pile: 
2 basal segments of abdomen rufous, 2nd with a sublunate 
cream-coloured spot on each side of the margin, and 2 dots 
at the apex : wings yellowish-brown on the disc : stigma 
and nervures piceous : legs bright rufous : coxae black, 
hoary sericeous, with a cream-coloured spot on the outside 
of each ; trochanters blackish, tips of hinder thighs and 
tibiae and the tarsi brownish, basal joint of the hinder feet 
ciliated internally. 

Supposed to have been first captured by Dr. Leach in De- 
vonshire, and a pair has since been taken near Parley Copse 
and Catherine-hill, Hampshire, in August, by the Rev. G. T. 
Rudd, to whom I am indebted for the loan of the male. 

Lagurus ovatus, Hare's-tail-grass, from Guernsey, was 
obligingly communicated by S. H. Haslem, Esq. 



il 



6o4 




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604. 
AMMOPHILA CAMPESTRIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam, Sphaegidae. 

Type of the Genus, Sphex vulgaris Linn. 
Ammophila Kirb., Lat., VandL., Curt. — Miscus/wr. — Sphex ifwH. 
Antennce inserted in the middle of the face, approximating, not 
longer than the thorax, generally curved at the apex, slender 
and filiform ; 13-jointed in the males (1 (J), basal joint stout, 
ovate, hairy beneath, 2nd small, globose, 3rd the longest, the 
remainder elongated, slightly decreasing in length, attenuated 
at the apex, which is truncated and hollow; r2-jointed in the 
females ( $ , the 2 terminal joints). 

Labrum incurved, semiorbicular, ciliated with short bristles, the 
front emarginate, with a few long straight hairs (2) . 
Mandibles long, slender and crossing, arcuated and dilated in the 
middle and subtridentate, having an ovate tooth at the centre 
and a small one beneath, with a portion more or less produced 
above, the remainder forming a long tooth, often acute (3). 
Maxillce elongated, terminating in a very long horny linear lobe, 
attenuated towards the apex, which is rounded and ciliated, 
with an incurved spine. Palpi attached near the middle and 
extending a little beyond the lobe, 6-jointed, first 3 joints the 
stoutest, clavate, basal one the shortest, 2nd and 3rd the longest, 
3 following slender, decreasing in length, the apical one spatu- 
liform and scarcely longer than the first (4). 
Mentum elongated, narrow, a little dilated at the middle (5). 
Lip very long, nearly linear, hollow, transversely striated and 
pubescent beyond the middle, cleft at the apex. Paraglosste 
long and lanceolate (d) . Palpi long, but much shorter than the 
lip, attached to 2 membranous scapes, arising from the apex of 
the mentum, slender and 4 -jointed, first 3 joints very long, 2nd 
a little the longest, 4th shorter subelhptic. 
Trophi inflected, rostriform. Head as broad as the thorax : faces of 
the males clothed with silvery hairs : eyes lateral and elliptic : 
ocelli 3 in triangle. Thorax ovate, the collar narrowed, sometimes 
forming a thickened ring : scutellum sublunate : metathorax large, 
cylindric-ovate . Abdomen 8-jointed in the male, with a slender 
petiole longest in that sex, the 2nd joint sometimes slender, the apex 
somewhat bilobed (6 (J) ; 7 -jointed in the female ( ? ), the apex armed 
with a sting inclosed between 2 lobes. Wings with one short mar- 
ginal and 3 submarginal cells (9*), the 2nd receiving 2 recurrent 
nervures, the Srd rarely peduncled. Legs, especially the anterior, 
which are the shortest, most spiny in the females, the others long : 
tibiae spiny, hinder the longest, the apex armed with strong spines, 
the anterior with one curved dilated and notched internally, 2nd pair 
with the spines serrated internally, hinder with one long spine, pecti- 
nated on the inside (8 f, apex of tibia and base of tarsus) : tarsi long, 
very spiny and 5-jointed, basal joint of the 1st and Srd pair of tarsi 
notched beneath at the base, especially the \st, and ciliated. 
Camfestris Lat. — pubescens Curt. Guide, Gen. 672. 5. 

Natural as this group is, there are many variations in the 
structure of the species: the trophi are less elongated in the 
female of A. hirsiita than in A. sabulosa, and the mandibles are 



obtuse : the petiole of the abdomen varies considerably in 
length and form, even in the sexes, and in one species the 3rd 
submarginal cell is pedicled : this forms a portion of Jurine's 
MiscuSi but I cannot think it advisable to establish this genus 
on such slender grounds. 

The oeconomy of these insects is very remarkable, and al- 
though well known I shall add a few lines from my own ob- 
servations. On the 26th of August I saw a female A. sahu- 
losa ascend a sandy bank, dragging a caterpillar, which it car- 
ried beneath it as the trunk of a tree is suspended under a Gillf 
holding it near the head with its jaws : having arrived at the 
desired spot it left the caterpillar, and proceeded about an 
inch to a place covered with sand, which it scratched away, and 
then with astonishing dexterity removed, and with its jaws 
drew out of a hole, comparatively large pieces of earth that 
closed and concealed the orifice ; some of these were so far in 
that it had to go beyond its own length, of course backing out 
every time : having completed this operation, it seized the larva 
and went backward into the hole, drawing the caterpillar quite 
down; after a short time the fly came out, and being frightened, 
it flew away. On the following day the Hon. C. Harris and 
myself saw another larva entombed ; it was a Geometra 1^ inch 
long ; that yesterday was a Noctua, probably meticulosa: having 
buried it the fly remained in the cell. We then dug out the 
caterpillar, and found a cylindrical white egg ^^th of an inch 
long, attached firmly to the middle; the Ammophila was below 
and came out much alarmed. 

Mr. Kirby was acquainted with the male of one species only 

when he characterized this genus, and my ignorance of that 

sex led me into several errors in the Guide. 

I. Petiole of abdomen elongated and formed gradually : 
a. 3rd submarginal cell pedicled. 

1. campestris Lat. — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 604?. 

Dead black, clothed with short grey pubescence, giving the apex of the 
metathorax and the outside of the hinder coxas a silvery appearance : 
sparingly punctured : metathorax very finely striated transversely, 2nd 
joint of abdomen, excepting the base, 3rd joint and base of the 4th orange ; 
costa, disc of cells and the fimbria yellowish-fuscous, scapulars, stigma and 
nervures brown. The male has a silvery face, the entire upper side of the 
2nd joint of the petiole and a long ovate spot on the back of the 3rd seg- 
ment black. 

I discovered the female in Norfolk 20 years since, and the 
male I took at Ramsdown, near Heron Court, the end of Aug. 
b. 3rd submai-ginal cell simple. 

2. sabulosa Linn. — Panz. 65. 12 ?.? — vulgaris Kit'b. — lutaria 

Panz. 65. 14 S -—Don. 3. 93. 1 ? .— pulvillata Sow. ? 
II. Petiole of abdomen shorter and formed abruptly. 

3. affinis Kirh. — Linn. Trans, v. 4. p. 20.5. No. 2. 

4. hirsuta Scop. — Sow. B. M. pi. 33. Jl 1. — Sam. Ent. Comp. 

pi. 8./. 5. — arenaria Fab. — Panz. 65. 13. — Do7i. 13.468. 
2. females. — argentata Kirb. — lutaria Fab. males. 
The Plant is Tussilago Petasites (Common Butter-bur.) 



^6/ 




c5^ <iyC/lg.-«i;, ^Ly/./Sip 



261. 
ASTATA VICTOR. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Larridae Lat.^ Leach. 

Type of the Genus Tiphia abdominalis Panz. 

AsTATA Lat., Sam. — Dimorpha Jur., Panz. — Tiphia Panz. 

AntenncE approximating, inserted at the base of the nasus, rather 
stoutest in the middle, 13-jointed in the males, basal joint ro- 
bust, 2nd globose, 3rd the longest, slender, the remainder gra- 
dually becoming shorter to the apex, the last joint small and 
conical (l*a) : more robust and l2-jointed in the females. 
Labrum minute, transverse, emarginate, producing 6 or 7 fur- 
cate spines, 2 very long hairs and 6 rigid bristles (2). 
Mandibles crossing, bent, slightly pilose, bifid at the apex (3). 
Maxilla: terminated by a large transparent lobe, which is coria- 
ceous, pubescent, and bent back at the apex ; having a large 
transparent lobe producing a few hairs on the inside. Palpi 
long hirsute, 6-jointed, basal joint small, 2nd and 3rd long and 
dilated, narrowed at the base, 4th the longest, 5th not so long, 
the 6th shorter and slender (4). 

Menfum oblong, strongly ciliated, anterior angles hollowed to 
receive the Palpi which are long and 4-jointed, basal joint the 
longest, sinuated and truncated, pilose on the internal side, 2nd 
dilated subtrigonate, 3rd small somewhat pear-shaped, 4th elon- 
gate, bean-shaped. Lip large, membranous cordiform (5). 
Head transverse. Eyes large, meeting behind in the males ( 1 *) j re- 
mote in the females. Ocelli 3, placed before the eyes in the males, 
the anterior one being the largest (1*). Abdomen very short espe- 
cially in the males, peduncled, ovate-conic. Wings, superior with 
the marginal cell attenuated and divided ; submarginal cells 3, the 
1st being divided by a nervure. Legs more robust in the females, 
posterior the longest. Thighs robust. Tibiae, anterior pair with a 
spine at the apex, with a membranous internal appendage ; 4 poste- 
rior with several rows of spiny bristles. Tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint 
the longest, penultimate the shortest; anterior producing long clavate 
bristles in the females. Claws simple. Pulvilli distinct {8, fore leg 
of a female from which sex the trophi are drawn). 



Victor Nobis, the female is represented. 

Male. Black, shining, covered with fine hoary pubescence. Ocelli 
reddish. Eyes brown. Thorax very thickly and minutely punc- 
tured. Metathorax reticulated. Abdomen red with a black spot 
at the base, the margin of the 3rd and the apical joints black 
also. Wings stained yellowish brown with a purplish and 
iridescent tint, the superior darkest across the middle ; costa, 
stig ma, nervures and tarsi piceous. 

In the Cabinets of the British Museum and the Author. 



A SOLITARY example in the British Museum, and another in 
Mr. Donovan's collection, were the only specimens preserved 
of this insect, and nothing was known of its liabits or locality ; 
I was therefore highly gratified last summer, by capturing 
several of both sexes ; they are exceedingly active ; and La- 
treille says they are called Astatae, because they are always in 
motion. 

On a fine day, the end of last July, whilst rambling about 
the undercliff at the back of the Isle of Wight, I observed 
two males on a pathway leading through heath and rushes ; 
a few days after, I found two more males on sandy spots near 
the same place ; and on the 1 2th of August, a young friend 
who was my companion, took a female at the top of the cliff; 
and towards the latter end of the same month, on a gravelly 
walk at Ramsdown, surrounded by heath, rhododendrons 
and pine-trees, I took four females, each of them carrying a 
pupa of Pentatoma prasina, Linn. ; or of P. dissimilis. Fab. : 
and as nothing was known of their oeconomy, it was an interest- 
ing and remarkable fact ; and there is scarcely a doubt but 
these pupae were to be buried by the Astata to deposit her 
eggs in. The Honourable Charles Harris also took one or 
two, which I believe were females also. 

The trophi are remarkable, especially the 2nd joint of the la- 
bial palpi ; and the upper lip with its long spines, some of them 
furcate. Latreille says the labium is trilobed ; and as his ac- 
curacy is beyond all praise, I suspect that it is different in the 
males, mine being a female, which was bilobed. The ante- 
rior tarsi of the females are furnished with the same sort of 
appendages as the Pompili, perhaps to secure their prey, or 
to assist them in clearing away the sand in burrowing. 

Panzer says his T. abdo7ninalis has whitish tarsi, and his 
figure is so represented; and his D. stigma has the anterior 
tibiae annulated with white. I have therefore been compelled 
to give my insect a new name ; for Mr. Donovan (who has 
figured the male, which is the reason that the female is now 
given ) has called his the Larra pornpiliformis of Panzer, which 
is not of the same genus. The D. oculata of Jurine is also 
perfectly distinct. 

The plant is Trifolium {Melilotus) officinale (Melilot Trefoil). 



480 




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480. 
OXYBELUS ARGENTATUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Larridae. 
Type of the Genus, Vespa uniglumis Linn. 

OxYBELUs Lat., Fab., Panz., Jur., Curt. — Vespa inm. — Crabro Fab. 
Antenna inserted at the base of the clypeus, short, curved, cla- 
vate, geniculated and pubescent, 13 -jointed in the males and 
12-jointed in the females (1) ; basal joint rather long and very 
stout, 2nd much smaller and cup-shaped, 3rd longer than the 
2nd, 4th shorter, the remainder cup-shaped or subquadrate, ter- 
minal joint ovate. 

Labrum small lunulate, ciliated, producing a few long hairs (2). 
Mandibles long slender cun^ed and acute with a triangular notch 
on the inside towards the base ; externally hairy and ciliated in- 
ternally (3). 

MaxillcB terminated by an incurved ovate lobe, the apical margin 
ciliated, and a small lobe on the inside. Palpi rather short, 
slender, pubescent, pilose and 6 -jointed, basal joint small, the 
remainder nearly equal, the 5 th a little shorter than the terminal 
one which is elongate -ovate (4). 

Mentum quadrate at the top, the anterior margin sinviated, with 
a spine in the middle, base obovate, forming an angle on each 
side. Palpi rather long slender and pubescent, attached to 
small scapes, 4-jointed, basal joint the longest, clavate, the re- 
mainder nearly of equal size, the terminal joint ovate. Lij) 
subquadrate and slightly emarginate (5). 
Head transverse, face orbicular : clypeus with a deep keel in the centre 
in the males : eyes lateral long and narrow: ocelli 3 in triangle on 
the fore part of the head. Thorax globose, rather broader than the 
head : collar short : (T, the thorax in profile) : scutellum trispinose, 
the lateral spines sguamose (a), the central one the longest acuminated 
curved and grooved above (b). Abdomen not larger than the thorax, 
ovate-conic and 6-jointed. Wings ; superior ivith 1 long marginal 
cell having the nervure continued from the apex, and 2 suhmarginal 
cells, the 1st of these being separated from one of the discoidul cells 
by a faint nervure : inferior wings ivith one transverse nervure very 
close to the base. Legs stout : thighs thick, short and ventricose : 
tibiae short clavate and spurred at the apex and spincd outside : tarsi 
lo7iger than the tibice, the anterior with spiny bristles outside and ser- 
rated with smaller ones internally ; 5-jointed, basal Joint the longest, 
4th minute, 5th thick and ovate. Claws curved and acute : pulvilli 
large and ovate (8, afore leg). 



Argentatus Matt. MSS. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 681. 6. 

Black, completely clothed with depressed silvery hairs and thickly 
punctured ; scutellum with the lateral lobes and the apex of the 
curved spine yellow. Abdomen ovate-conic, with a yellow spot 
on each side of the first 4 segments, the 1st pair transverse oval, 
the 2nd and 3rd linear, the 4th united. Nervures of wings and 
legs ferruginous ; anterior thighs black, yellow at the apex, the 
others black only at the base ; anterior tibiae yellow outside, the 
others only of that colour at the base : Pulvilli blackish. 

In the Cabinets of the British Museum and Mr. Matthews. 



Latreille distinguishes Oxybelus from Astata (pi. 261) and 
Nysson by a difference in the number of the cubital or sub- 
marginal cells, and the remarkable trimucronated scutellum is 
a striking character. 

The males are smaller than the females, their bodies are 
narrower, the antennae have a greater number of joints, and 
the clypeus, at least in the Type, has a projecting ridge, like 
a nose. Of their oeconomy I am ignorant, but Latreille says 
they bury dead flies and lay their eggs close by them. 

The following species have been detected in Britain. 

1. O. uniglumis Lin7i. F. S. 1681. — Panz. 64. 14-? — 10-macu- 

latus Do7i. 11. 376. 1. 1. war. 

" Thorax immaculate : scutellum mucronate : abdomen with 
8 white spots, the 2 basal ones ovate, the others linear : thighs 
black, tibiae ferruginous." The male has sometimes 10 spots 
on the abdomen, it is said. 

On umbellate flowers in Kent. June and middle of August 
on sandy cliffs and footpaths in pairs, at the back of the Isle 
of Wight, also on sunny banks Pool Harbour: J. C. At Ap- 
pledore, Dawlish, Bristol, Portland, Lulworth, Parley and 
Monkswood ? J. C. Dale, Esq., from July to September. 

2. O. mucronatus Fah. Fnt. Syd. 2. 300. 25. 
" Scutellum bidentate and mucronate, black spotted with 

yellow: all the abdominal segments with transverse yellow 
spots on each side : legs black, thighs yellow." 

Mr. Dale thinks he took this on Parley Heath, July 5, 1823. 

3. O. concinnus Step. — mucronatus Panz.? 101. 19. 

4. O. tridens? Fab. E. S. Supp. 270. 24. — Nomada punctata, 

Fab. E. S. 

*' Scutellum black immaculate; all the abdominal segments 
with transverse yellow spots on eacJi side : legs rufous, thighs ' 
black." 

I have taken a pair, I believe, of this species. 1 

5. O. trispinosus Fab. E. S. 2. 301. 26. — Lat. Gen., c^r., tab. 

13./. 13. 
" Scutellum black, abdomen with 2 yellow spots on each 
side : legs black, apex ferruginous." 
End of June, Wrentham, Suffolk. 

6. O. argentatus Matt.— Curt. Brit. Ent.pl. 480.?. 
The beautiful specimen figured was taken on the sand-hills 

near Liverpool in July 1831 by A. Matthews, Esq., of Lincoln 
College, Oxford, to whom I am indebted for the loan of it. 
The Plant is Hedypnuis {^ipargia) /lispida (Rough Apargia). 



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652. 
TRYPOXYLON CLAVICERUM. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Crabronidae. 

Type of the Genus, Sphex Figulus Linn. 

Trypoxylon Z/af., Fab., St. Farg., Shuc, Curt. — Apius Jur. — Sphex 
Linn. 

Antennce inserted under a little tubercle at the base of the cly- 
peus, approximating, short, not geniculated, but curved, a little 
clavate, 13-jointed in the male (1 (J), basal joint short stout and 
somewhat obovate, '2nd globose, 3rd slender oblong, the follow- 
ing gradually decreasing in length and increasing in diameter, 
becoming transverse towards the apex, the last joint long, 
curved and conical, 12-jointed in the female, scarcely clavate, 
the apical joint not curved. 

Labrum concealed, the base elongate-trigonate, anterior portion 
forming two long broad parallel lobes, obtuse and ciliated with 
long hairs (2) . 

Mandibles long slender lanceolate and curved, broadest at the 
base, with a large angle on the inside, externally hairy (3 $ ) ; 
smaller and claw-shaped in the male, and regularly curved, not 
angulated internally ( c?)- 

MaxillcB with a small lobe inside, terminated by a larger ovate 
one, ciliated outside. Palpi long, ciliated internally, filiform, 
composed of 6 joints of nearly equal length, basal joint a little 
the shortest, the following cleaver-shaped, 5 th sometimes the 
longest, 6th very slender (4). 

Mentum short broad and suborbicular, base truncated, the sides 
trisinuated, anterior margin straight. Lip very short and nearly 
concealed. Palpi neither long nor stout, pubescent, 4-jointed, 
2 basal joints the longest, clavate, 3rd nearly ovate, 4th ovate 
(5). 
Head transverse, face orbicular (1 $ ).- eyes large vertical and deeply 
notched on the inside : ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown. Thorax 
globose : scutel subquadrate, the basal angles produced. Abdomen 
very long, slender at the base, gradually becoming clavate, the apex 
incurved and acute. Wings, superior with one marginal and 3 sub- 
marginal cells, the nervures of the 2nd and 3rd as well as of the ex- 
ternal discoidal cell but faintly traced (9). Thighs short and stout : 
tibiae, anterior very short, with a spine at the apex, the others spurred: 
tarsi 5-jointed, hinder long, terminal joint short atid stout: claws and 
pulvilli thick. 

Clavicerum St. Farg. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 682. 3. 2nd Edition. 
In Mr. Shuckard's Cabinet. 



Trypoxylon is considered to be allied on the one hand to 
TacJiT/buhis, and on the other to Nztela, both of them Euro- 
pean types, but not inhabitants of this country. 



I. Figulus Litm. — Panz. 80. 16. — Jurine pl.9. Gen. 9,. 
Black, shining, cl3'peus and the margins of the segments sil- 
very on the sides. 

Authors do not seem to agree respecting the oeconomy of 
this abundant species, which is found on old posts, paling, 
outhouses, gates, barn and stable doors, from the middle of 
May to the beginning of August, and in the Isle of Wight I 
have frequently found it upon rushes. Latreille says that it 
avails itself of the holes made by other insects in wood to form 
its own nest. As soon as the proprietor of the hole leaves it, 
the Trypoxylon takes possession of it, cleans, enlarges, and 
clothes the inside with a coat of diluted earth, places a spider 
(Mr. Westwood says the young o{ Epeira diadema) in it, de- 
posits an egg, and then closes the aperture with moist earth ; 
each cell occupies it two days. The larva is an apode and 
resembles those of bees : after having consumed its provision 
it spins a very thin cocoon, in which it becomes a pupa. This 
view has been confirmed by the observations of Mr. Shuckard 
and Mr. Westwood, but from the account of the oeconomy of 
this insect by the latter gentleman in the Trans, of the Ent. 
Soc. he seems to be disposed to think that the Trypoxylon 
forms its own burrows. M. St. Fargeau considers that these 
insects are parasitic, and from an anecdote published in Mr. 
Shuckard's fossorial Hymenoptera it appears that Mr. John- 
son detected them carrying masses composed of Aphides into 
the burrows occupied by Odyneri. 

2. aurifrons. " Male black, silky-aureous, antennge fulvous, 
margins of the abdominal segments ferruginous : 7 lines." 
Shuc. 117. 2. 

Mr. Shuckard thinks this species, which is in the British 
Museum, may not be an European insect. 

3. clavigerum St. Farg. — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 652. ? . 
Black, minutely punctured, clothed with short soft white 
pubescence, clypeus silvery in both sexes: metathorax 
striated obliquely, with a large channel down the centre : 
abdomen piceous, basal joint elongated, subpyriform, with 
a sharp groove down the base, the segments constricted at 
the base, sides of the margins silky- white : scapulae and tips 
of thighs ochreous, 4 anterior tibiae and tarsi ochreous, the 
former fuscous outside, except at the base and apex. In the 
male the legs are darker. 

Mr. Shuckard obliged me by the loan of this insect, which 
he has taken at Hampstead and Darent ; it has also been 
found at Camberwell : he adds that it frequents holes in posts 
and paling, especially where Heriades Campanularum (fol. 504) 
nidificates. 

For specimens of Polygofium vivipartim, Alpine Bistort, I 
am indebted to T. Howson, Esq., who took me to their locality 
in the neighbourhood of Giggleswick. 



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680. 
CRABRO SUBPUNCTATUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Crabronidae. 

Type of the Genus, Sphex cribraria Linn. 
BABRO Fab., Panz., Van. Lind., Shuck,, Curt. — Pemphredon Fab. 
Antennce inserted towards the bottom of the face at the base of 
the clypeus, approximating, a little longer than the head, geni- 
culated, fusiform and 13-jointed in the male (1 ^), basal joint 
stout, elongate obovate, hairy at the back, 2nd small, cup- 
shaped, 5 following dilated, 3rd semiovate, the following trans- 
verse, 8th, 9th and 10th narrower, serrated, the following slender 
subovate : filiform and 12-jointedin the female (1 ? ), basal joint 
long, rather stout, sublinear and hairy, 2nd ovate -truncate, 3rd 
much longer than any of the following which are oblong, a little 
thickened and truncated obliquely, apical joint longer and sub- 
conic. 

Labrum attached under the clypeus, transverse, very short, 
forming a depressed triangle, the centre emarginate, ciliated and 
fringed with long hairs (2) , 

Mandibles long, crossing, a little curved, sublinear, the apex 
cleft, forming 2 broad rounded teeth (3). 

MaxillcB short, terminating in a large concavo-convex ciliated 
lobe. Palpi short, pubescent and 6-jointed, basal joint a little 
longer than the 2nd, which is ovate-truncate, slender and clavate, 
3rd, 4th and 5th rather thick and a little cleaver-shaped, 4th the 
longest, 6th slender, subelliptic and at least as long as the 4th 

Mentum obconical. Lip very short, fleshy and pilose in the 

female (5), as long as the palpi and semicylindrical in the male 

( (^). Palpi short pubescent and 4-jointed, basal joint clavate, 

2nd and 3rd somewhat obtrigonate, 4th small and ovate (5). 

Head larc/e and broad; face transverse-oval : eyes large ovate, remote 

above, approximating below : ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown. Thorax 

as broad as the head, obovate, collar narrow, the angles acuminated : 

scutel transverse, semiovate. Abdomen very narrow at the base, as 

long as the head and thorax, ovate-lanceolate, 7-jointed in the male, 

6-jointed in the female. Wings with 1 marginal cell, pedicled at the 

apex, and 1 submarginal. Legs short and stout : thighs stout : 

tibiae short, spinose outside, with long spurs at the apex: tarsi as long 

as the tibicE, slender, 5-jointed, externally spinose in the female, basal 

joint elongated, 3 following obtrigonate, 5th stout, elongate-clavate : 

claws short, acute : anterior legs patelliform in the male (8) ; coxae 

stout (c) ; trochanters oblong {d) ; thigh with a minute spine at the 

base and a large dilated tooth on the outside (f), trigonate at the 

apex ; tibia with a spur at the apex, and a large horny bowl-shaped 

dilatation on the outside, tvith transparent dots (J) ; tarsus short and 

thick, basal joint obtrigonate, 5 following saucer-shaped {t) ; claws 

very unequal, one small the other stout, curved and hooked at the 

base (m). 

SuBPUNCTATUs/Jossi. — Curt.Guide, Gen. 683.18. — 4-maculatusFai. (^ . 
In the Author s and other Cabinets. 



Crabro is a group of fossorial insects varying so much in 
structure, that MM. St. Fargeau and Brulle have formed 
them into 1 1 geneva, the EngUsh types of which I shall subjoin, 
referring to the Srd vol. of the Ann. de la Soc. Ent. for their 
characters. Mr. Shuckard has given a very able synoptic 
table, as well as elaborate descriptions of the species, a list of 
which will be found in the Guide. I wish to observe that the 
pellucid spots on the spoon of the masculine fore-legs are co- 
vered with a membrane, and it will be seen by the dissections 
of the trophi that there are ample grounds for establishing the 
genus Wiopalum. These insects are often found upon um- 
bellatse, and some of them undergo their metamorphoses in 
decayed trees. Latreille says that C. cribrarius provides for 
its larvae with a Pyralis (Tortrix) that lives upon the oak : 
other females nourish them with Diptera. 

Crabro. 6. cephalotes Fab. 

12^. varus Curt. — comptus aS^. Farg.? v. 3. |j. 705. 8. 
Male black, minutely punctured and hairy: aiiteniise 13-jointed, with the 
Srd and 4th joints dentate, scape yellow beneath, clypeus and inner mai'- 
gin of eyes silvery ; crown convex : metathorax rugose : abdomen witli 
5 yellow spots on each side, the 1st pair, which is the largest, being on 
the 2nd segment ; those on the 6th are united : legs black, anterior thighs 
with a )'ellow streak beneath in the anterior, the otiiers with a spot at the 
apex ; tibice black, intermediate slender and crooked, the others yellow 
outside ; tarsi yellow, hinder brown, apical joint blackish ; length 3 lines. 
I took a male at Horning in Norfolk the 24th of June, and 

Mr. Shuckard has 2 from Scotland. The small size and 

crooked slender and black intermediate tibiae, distinguish it 

from C. Xyhirgus. 

SoLENius. 19. vagus Lin7i. — Panz, 46. 10. ? . 

Blepharipus. 23. dimidiatus Fab. — signatus Pz. 43. 15 ? . 

Ceratocolus. 13. striatus St. Farg. — Lindenius Shuck. ? 

Thyreopus. 4. cribrarius Zy2 WW. — Pz. 15.19 ?. — palmatusPz. 
46. 3 c?. 

Thyreus. 1. vexillatus Pz. 46. 5. — clypeatus Fab. 

Crossocerus. 2. scutatus Fab. — Pz. 15. 22. (^. 

18. subpunctatus Rossi. — Curt. B. E. pi. 680 ? . 

Male black, finely punctured ; antennee ciliated, base and tip of scape 
ochreous ; mandibles castaneous at the centre ; clypeus white with hair ; 
metathorax with a shining cordiform space ; 2nd and Srd joints of abdo- 
men with a large yellow spot on each side, 6tli with 3 small yellow spots 
connected at the base : legs ochreous, yellow outside ; anterior thiglis black 
on one side, hinder legs black, the tibiae with a yellow patch at the base, 
spurs ochreous. Female with 2 yellow spots on the collar: 5th segment 
of abdomen with a large yellow round spot ; var, with a yellow streak be- 
hind the scutel and a sinuated one on the basal joint of abdomen, with 
broad yellow bands on the 3 following, tlie oth joint entirely yellow. 

Lindenius. 37. albilabris Fab. — leucostoma Pz. \5. 24. 
Dasyproctus is an African genus, and Corynopus and Phy- 

soscELUS form the genus Rhopalum of Brit. Ent. fob 656. 

Carum verticillatum, Whorled Caraway, from Newby Cross, 
was communicated by T. C. Heysham, Esq. 




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656. 
RHOPALUM TIBIALE. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. CrabronicIjE. 

Type of the Genus, Crabro rufiventris Panz. 

Rhopalum Kirb., Curt. — Physoscelus, Corynopus St. Farg. — Pem- 
phredoni^ft^. — Crabro Fab., Panz., Vand. L., Shuc. 
Antenna inserted at the base of the clypeus, approximating-, 
scarcely longer than the head, geniculated, curved and simple at 
the apex; 13-jointedin the male (1), basal joint long and stout, 
2nd ovate, 3rd the same length but truncated, the remainder 
quadrate, excepting the 6th joint which is oblong, emarginate 
beneath, and the terminal one which is elongate-conic : 12- 
jointed in the female, the 4th joint longer than the 3rd. 
Labrum concealed beneath the clypeus, minute, transverse, the 
sides rounded, anterior margin convex and ciliated with strong- 
bristles (2). 

Mandibles rather long slender and cun'ed, crossing over the 
labrum, hairy, broad at the apex and cleft, forming 2 trigonate 
teeth, equal in the male (3). 

Maxillce terminated by an inflected lobe, hairy outside. Palpi 
not long, pubescent, 5 -jointed, basal joint minute, 3 following 
stout somewhat obovate, 4th longer than the preceding, but 
shorter than the terminal joint, which is slender and subfusiform 
(4). 

Mentum elongate- trigonate, the anterior margin waved. Labium 
very short and concealed behind the mentum. Palpi attached 
to very minute scapes at the anterior angles, pilose, basal joint 
slender and clavate, 2nd stouter, somewhat obovate, 3rd a little 
the largest, ovate-conic (5). 
Head large subglobose : eyes la7-ge lateral and ovate : ocelli 3 in tri- 
angle on the croivn. Thorax oval : scutel semiorbicular : meta- 
thorax smooth and convex. Abdomen petiolated, elongated, slender, 
clavate, basal joint long and slender, the apex nodose and larger than 
the base of the '2nd joint, the remainder forming an ovate mass. 
Wings, superior scarcely so long as the body, with a lanceolate mar- 
ginal cell divided near the apex, one large submarginal and 2 dis- 
coidal cells. Legs rather short, hinder the longest and stoutest: 
anterior thighs very short : tibi^ short simple and spurred, posterior 
stout clavate and spinose externally : tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint the 
longest and stoutest especially in the hinder pair : claws and pulvilli 
short and stout (S, afore leg) . 



TiBiALE Fab. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 684. 1. — varicornis Panz. 
In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale, Mr. Shuckard, and the Author. 



That the neuration of the winn-s is often a valuable and useful 
character to assist in the formation of genera cannot be denied, 
but it is equally true that a strict adherence to it without an 



examination of the troplii, will frequently lead to error. The 
group before us was many years since noticed by Mr. Kirby 
and called Rhopalwn, and other celebrated writers have con- 
sidered it a distinct type from Crabro, with which Mr. Shuck- 
ard has united it in his elegant Monograph of the Fossorial 
Hymenoptera. On a comparison of the tropin however the 
necessity of separating our two insects from Crahro is manifest : 
the most obvious differences are the palpi being only 5 and 3- 
jointed, whilst in Crahro patellatus the maxillary have 6 and 
the labial 4 joints, and the lip is nearly as long as the labial 
palpi : I ought to remark that I could not obtain recent spe- 
cimens for dissection, but I have no reason to think they had 
been mutilated. Even the two species oi RJio2)alum vary so 
materially that they must form at least 2 sections ; the antennte 
of the males and the clypeus are very different, as well as the 
structure of the tarsi, and the remarkable lobes attached to the 
abdomen 1 have not yet discovered in R. riifiventre. 

1. tibiale Fah. — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 656. (J.— Corynopus 
.SV. Farg. 

Male black, shining, slightly silky ; clypeus porrected obliquely, silvery, 
lobed in the centre ; inner margin of eyes silvery ; tropin ochreous, base 
of mandibles black ; basal joint of antennae yellow beneatli, 2ndsubtrigo- 
nate produced on the inside, yellow at the apex, 3rd small truncated ob- 
liquelv, 4th and 5th stout, elongated and somewhat hatchet-shaped, being 
emarginated beneath, following short, Gth and 7th yellow at the apex, yth 
and 11th straw colour (1 *) : abdomen with the margin of the 2nd segment 
sometimes ferruginous, as well as the apex, which is furnished with 2 lan- 
ceolate laminiE : nervures and stigma piceous : legs yellow ; thighs black, 
except at the tips, anterior tibiae with a black spot on the outside, the 
others with a black ring, the hinder dilated and rufous at the apex : tarsi 
tip])ed with orange, basal joint ciliated externally and dilated in the an- 
terior, hinder brown, the base and 4th joint subrufous, the former produced 
externally at the apex. Female larger and stouter ; clypeus acuminated 
in the centre; antennas simple, 4th joint longer than the 3rd or 5th ; basal 
joint of tarsi not dilated, 4 anterior tibiae piceous beneath: anus acumi- 
nated and channelled above. 
July, Parley, Blandford, and Gl. Wootton, Mr. Dale ; 

Darent, Mr. Shuckard ; on Lime-trees, Southgate, Mr. F. 

Walker; about laurels at Netley, Shropshire, Mr. Westwood. 

2. rufiventre Fab. — Vanz. 72. 12. — Physoscelus ^t. Farg. 
Shining black ; margins of the 2nd abdominal segment and sides of the 
3rd ferruginous ; clypeus semicircular and silvery, sides of face silvery ; 
mandibles yellow, tips ferruginous ; antennae with the basal joint yellow 
beneath, the following ochreous beneath excepting the apical ones; legs 
straw colom-, thighs black, except at the apex, intermediate tibice with a 
dark dot on the inside at the middle, hinder legs piceous, base of tibiae 
whitish : 2^ lines. Female with the abdomen rufous, excepting the petiole, 
and sometimes the 2nd, 4th and 5th segments are piceous : 2^ lines. 
July, Parley, in a garden at Blandford, Gl. Wootton, Mr. 

Dale ; near Hyde, Rev. G. T. Rudd ; in June, Norfolk, and 
August, Isle ol" Arran, J. C 

The Plant is Caucalis (Torilis Adan.) infesta, Spreading 
Hedge Parsley. 



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496. 
DIODONTUS GRACILIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Crabronidae. 

Tyjpe of the Genus, Psen pallipes Pans. 
DioDONTUs Curt. — Stigmus Lat. — Pemphredon Fab., Vand. L. — 
Psen Panz. — Crabro Fah. 

Antemicc inserted below the naiddle of the face, a little longer 
than the head, velvety, filiform, and IS-jointed in the male ; 
12-jointed in the female (1), basal joint the longest and stoutest, 
subpyriform and truncated obliquely, 2nd obovate, 3rd rather 
more slender and oblong, the remainder a little stouter, of equal 
length and oblong, terminal joint longer and ovate at the apex. 
Labrum semiorbicular, notched in front, forming two obtuse 
points, slightly produced, the margin producing a few bristles 

Mandibles alike, long, narrow, obtuse, pilose, truncated obliquely 
and notched, forming two rounded and concave teeth, the lower 
one with a series of bristles on the inside (3). 
Maxilla terminated by an oblique subovate lobe, very pilose at 
the apex, with a porrected one on the inside, producing a few 
bristles. Palpi long, hairy and 6-jointed, basal joint the shortest 
and slenderest, 2nd and 3rd very broad, the remainder slender 
and attenuated to the apex, 4th the longest, 5th and 6th not 
longer than the 2nd and 3rd (4). 

Mentum oblong, a little dUated before. Labium very short and 
fleshy. Palpi rather long, pointed and pilose, basal joint long, 
naked and clavate, 3 following much shorter, nearly of equal 
length, the 3rd a little the shortest, 4th a little narrower and 
ovate at the apex (5). 
HqvA broad, face orbicular, concave: eyes lateral and ovate : ocelli 3 
in triangle on the crown of the head. Thorax obovate. Abdomen 
elongate conic or ovate ; petiole very short. Wings with 3 submar- 
ginal cells, the \st long, the 2nd small, obloiig or rhomboidal and 
3 discoidal cells. Legs, anterior the shortest : thighs slightly in- 
crassated : tibiae short, slender at the base, anterior with a broad 
spine at the apex, the others with 2 slender ones, the posterior gene- 
rally spiny outside in the females : tarsi long, especially the poste- 
rior, 5-jointed, basal joint very long, the others short and decreasing 
in size to the apex, the terminal joint being clavate : claws small (8, a 
fore leg). 

Gracilis Curt. Guide, Gen. 685^. 1. 

Male black, slender ; head and thorax very thickly and minutely 
l)unctured, the former with the lower part of the face clothed 
with silvery hairs ; palpi and a stripe outside the mandibles 
ochreous-white ; metathorax coarsely reticulated, shining : ab- 
domen very glossy, minutely but not thickly punctured, seg- 
ments coarctate especially at the base, the apex ferruginous 
with a recurved spine : wings quite transparent, nervures and 
stigma piceous, 2nd submarginal cell oblong, very little nar- 
rowed above : tips of thighs, base and tips of tibiae and tarsi 
ochreous, excepting the hinder pair and the apex of the others. 
In the Cabinets of Mr. Shuckard and the Author. 



The additional discoidal cell will distinguish Diodontus from 
Stigmus; and the more narrowed central submarginal one, as 
well as the short petiole, at once separate it from Pemphre- 
don. I should not, however, have detached it from tiie latter 
o-enus if the trophi had been at all similar; but Pemphredon 
has an undivided labrum, the mandibles are tvifid, and ihej^alpi 
differently formed to those of Diodontus. 

One British species only has been recorded, to which I 
have the pleasure of adding three others. 

1. D. gracilis Curt. Brit. Ent. j^l- 49G. c^. 

I took two males at Glanville's Wootton the middle of June, 
and should have given them as that sex of the following species 
if the insect supposed by Vander Linden and his friend M.Wes- 
mael to be the male, did not so materially differ from my spe- 
cimens. 

1^. D. insignis Vand. L. — Curt. 

Female 2 j lines ; black, basal joint of antennse beneath, a broad 
stripe outside the mandibles and a spot on each side below the wings, 
whitish ochre ; metathorax not strongly reticulated, striated at the 
base and on a cordate space : wings slightly tinged with brown : legs 
similar to D. gracilis ; but the anterior tibiae are entirely ochreous, 
and the posterior are not bristly outside. 

2. D. minutus Fab. Ent. Syst. 2. 302. 32. 

Male 2 lines ; black, minutely punctured, lower part of face silvery; 
palpi, underside of antennse (except at the base) and mandibles, pale 
yellowish, excepting the tips which are ferruginous ; scapulars and a 
spot below them yellowish white, the former with a brown spot ; 
metathorax strongly reticulated, striated at the base; tips of thighs 
ochreous, tibiae and tarsi of the same colour, the posterior tibial 
brownish at the middle and the tips of the tarsi rather dark : wings 
transparent. Female 2-^ lines ; black, mandibles as in the male, palpi 
brown ; thorax the same ; abdomen stouter, ovate-conic, clothed with 
very short ochreous pubescence ; tibiae, tarsi and tips of thighs ferru- 
ginous-ochre with a piceous space on all the tibice at the middle, the 
posterior having a few short spiny bristles outside : wings stained 
pale brown, the 2nd submarginal cell trapezate. '' 

The 1st submarginal cell is shorter in this species than in 
D. insignis, and the 2nd recurrent nervure is not united at the j| 
middle of the posterior discoidal one, but beyond it. — July 3()th, ' 
Black Gang Chine, Isle of Wight. 

3. D. pallipes Pa?iz. 52. 22. — tristis Vand. L. p. 76. 1. 

Female 2 to 2-J- lines, black, shining, minutely and sparingly punc- 
tured, tips of mandibles castaneous, palpi brownish : metathorax 
strongly reticulated ; wings with a brownish cloud across the middle, 
the 2nd submarginal cell very much narrowed above ; tarsi brown, 
palest at the base, anterior tibire sometimes of the same colour inside 
towards the apex. 

Pallipes is not a well chosen name for this insect : never- 
theless it ought to be retained. 

My specimens are, 1 believe, from Norfolk. The male I 
have never seen. 

The Plant \^IIi/pcriciunpulchrum (Upright St. John's Wort). 



66^ 





^ 




a 




632. 
PEMPHREDON UNICOLOR. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Crabronidae. 

■ Type of the Genus, Pemphredon lugubris Fah. 

Pemphredon Lat., Fab., Vand. L., Curt. — Cemonus Jur. — Crabro 
and Pelopoeus Fab. — Vespa Linn. 

Antennce inserted in front of the face, approximating, not so 
long as the head and thorax, 13-jointed in the males (1), basal 
joint long and stout, 2nd subglobose, 3rd nearly as long as the 
Ist,^ the following decreasing in length and slightly tapering, 
apical joint ovate-conic, more curved 12-jointed in the female. 
Labrum inserted under the clypeus, horny, trigonate, all the 
angles truncated, the anterior margin narrow and producing a 
few long bristles (2). 

Mandibles crossing, elongated, broadest at the base, a little nar- 
rowed at the middle, the apex rounded and quadridentate in the 
female (3) ; forming 3 strong teeth in the male of P. unicolor. 
Maxilla small, terminated by 2 lobes, the inner one small ovate 
and ciliated internally, the outer one large subrhomboidal and 
externally pubescent. Palpi long, pubescent on the inside, 5- 
jbinted, basal joint the shortest clavate, 2 following nearly of 
equal length, the stoutest, semilunate, 4th the longest, 2 follow- 
ing a little shorter, 5th a little the slenderest (4). 
Menium elongate-ovate, anterior margin bisinuated to receive 
the Palpi, which are rather long, slender, internally pubescent 
and 4 -jointed, basal joint long and clavate, the remainder short, 
2nd and 3rd the stoutest, semilunate, 4th elliptical. Labium 
transverse, cordate (5). 
Head slightly transverse, a little broader than the thorax, subquadrate, 
the angles rounded ; clypeus emarginate in the male, convex in the 
female : eyes remote, ovate, placed obliquely at the anterior angles : 
ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown. Thorax ovate : scutel transverse, 
semiovate : metathorax gibbose. Abdomen not larger than the 
thorax, slightly depressed, ovate-conic and attached by an elongated 
strong petiole, slightly arched and narrowed at the base. Wings, 
superior with 3 submarginal cells, \st long, 2nd subquadrate, each 
receiving a recurrent nervure (9), or the \st receiving two, the Ind 
none. Legs rather short, anterior a little the smallest : tibiae short 
clavate, spurred at the apex : tarsi a little longer than the tibice, 
slender and 5 -Jointed, basal joint elongated, 4th the smallest : claws 
curved and acute. 

Unicolor FaJ., Lat. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 686. 4. — Sphex ater JFaJ. 
In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



It would not be easy to jfind two groups so nearly allied, 
that differ more essentially in the structure of their tropin, 
than Pemp/iredofi and the species I have separated at folio 
496 under the name of Diodontus, from the bidentate lahrum 
of the type, which, it must be remembered, is the P. tristis of 
Vander Linden, and is presumed to be synonymous with 
Panzer's Psen pallipcs. D. minuttcs is also a typical species, 
but for want of specimens for dissection I could not at the 



time ascertain whether D. gracilis and insignis had bidentate 

labrums. 

I am happy in being able to introduce some interesting re- 
marks connected with the oeconomy of these insects which are 
new to me. Towards the end of August, during the late meet- 
ino- at Bristol, Mr. Hewitson gave me some straws taken from 
the thatch of a summer-house, each of them containing from 
10 to 20 Hymenoptera ; a few days after, Mr. Waring took me 
to the summer-house in his garden, when I saw multitudes of 
small black Hymenoptera entering the straws of the thatch, 
many of them carrying an Aphis. I secured some for subse- 
quent examination, when I was greatly surprised to find what 
I had supposed, whilst they were flying, to be merely the 
sexes of one species, comprised, I believe, four genera, viz. 
Hyhviis annularis (folio 373), males of Psen ater (fol. 25), 
Pemphredon unicolor, and a Diodonttis. On splitting the 
straws I found numbers of perfect insects, together with larvae 
inclosed apparently in pollen, masses of an Aphis, and occa- 
sionally a specimen o{ Hedychriini imperiale (fol. 38). I had 
no opportunity of revisiting the spot after I found there 
were several genera whose habits were so similar ; I therefore 
have some doubt whether I did not take the Hylceus and Dio- 
dontiis out of the straws. I am pretty certain it was the Pem- 
phredons that were carrying the Aphides, which I believe were 
taken from a rose-bush. The Hedychmm was in all proba- 
bility a parasite of the Hylaeus. The British Pemphredons 
may be thus divided. 

* 1st and 2nd subinarginal cells, each receiving a recurrent 

nervure. 

1. LugubrisZvzi. — Lat. — \m\co\or Jur. Gen. 28.J9/.11 ? . Black, 

sinning, clothed with white pubescence, thickly punctured, except the 
abdomen and legs : antennre thickened a little at the middle in the 
males, with the clypeus silvery : ^ 4, ? 5 lines long. 
Beginning of June, old paling and trunks of dead trees. 

2. morio Va7id. Lind. part l.p. 82. n. 5. " Black, clothed with 

griseous pubescence, the abdominal petiole short : 3 lines long." 

** 1st marginal cell receiving 2 recurrent nervures, the 

2nd none. 

3. unicolor Fab.— Curt. Brit. Ent.pl. 632. S- As this is not 
the S. unicolor of Panz., the Fabrician name of ater ought 
not to have been superseded. Shining black with whitish pubes- 
cence, head thickly punctured, clypeus silvery in the male, thorax spa- 
nngly punctured before, nietathorax with a shining elevated semicir- 
cular Inie, petiole punctured and channelled : wings tinged with brown, 
especially the apex of the anterior. 

May and June, Oaks, Coomb-wood and Lowestoft; 28th 
July, Casde Connel; 8th July, under the Cliff, Dover; end 
of August, about the thatch of a summer-house, Bristol. 

For specimens of the rare plant Caucalis latifolia. Broad- 
leaved Hcn's-foot, I am indebted to Miss Queckit, who ga- 
thered them ni a corn-field near Langport. 



680 




\\ 






'<*. (iy ^ <^**4;» --^^.- f./<iise 



580. 
•MELLINUS SABULOSIIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Crabronidae. 

Type of the Genus, Vespa arvensis Linn. 
Mellinus Fah., Lat., Jur., V. Lind., Curt. — Crabro Fab., Pans. 
Antenna longer than the head, slender and inserted at the middle 
of the face, a little remote, subfusiform, pubescent and 13-jointed 
in the male, basal joint short but the stoutest, ovate-truncate, 
2nd minute subglobose, 3rd and 4th nearly of equal length and 
not longer than the 1st, the remainder insensibly decreasing in 
length, 5th to the 8th oblong, the remainder concave beneath, 
forming a protuberance at the base, the apical joint longer, atte- 
nuated and rounded at the apex (1 (^) ; longer filiform and 
12-jointed in the female, with all the joints more elongated and 
simple, 3rd joint rather the longest (1 ? ). 
Labrum broad and short, inserted under the cljrpeus, anterior 
margin nearly straight and cUiated with long hairs (2). 
Mandibles long, crossing, hairy and bifid in the male, tridentate 
in the female (3), the apex being lanceolate;, with 2 rounded 
teeth beneath. 

MaxillcE terminated by a large ovate, concave, pubescent lobe, 
with a smaller one lying close behind it. Palpi long pubescent 
and 6-jointed, basal joint the shortest, 2nd a little longer and 
stouter, both clavate, 3rd rather stout and considerably longer, 
4th the longest, 5th the length of the 3rd joint, 6th a little longer 
and very slender (4). 

Mentum oblong, rounded before, nearly concealing the Lip, 
which is broader, the angles rounded. Palpi rather long, pu- 
bescent and 4-jointed, basal joint long and clavate, the re- 
mainder shorter, nearly equal in length, 2nd thickest at the apex 
and truncated obhquely, 3rd and 4th a little curved (5). 
Males considerably smaller than the females. Head large and orbicular: 
eyes lateral and ovate : ocelli 3, in triangle on the croivn of the 
head. Thorax obovate ; metathorax foveated. Abdomen ovate, 
icith a pear-shaped peduncle. Wings with 1 marginal, 4 submargi- 
nal and 3 discoidal cells. Legs alike in both sexes : thighs incras- 
sated, small at the apex : tibiee, anterior with a curved spine at the 
apex: tarsi long, b -jointed, basal joint very long in the anterior, 
notched at the base, 2 following turbinate, 4th bilobed, oth thick and 
short : claws rather long curved and acute : pulvilli large, forming 
a large sucker at the apex (8, afore leg). 

Sabulosus Fab. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 687. 1. 



The Mellini are partial to dry sandy banks, where the females 
form burrows to deposit their eggs; and when they hatch, 
the parent carries the young larvae dead flies to feed upon. 
I have twice watched the M. arvensis thus employed, and the 
following observations are copied from my note-book. 

Sept. 16th. I was exceedingly amused at the strength and 
sagacity exhibited by a species of Mellinus. It had captured 
a large blue fly, probably Musca vomitoria, which it held tight 
by the rostrum with its mandibles, the under side of the abdo- 



men lying parallel to its own ; in this way it flew about a 
northern bunk, alighting occasionally upon the grass that 
covered it, when at last it found its retreat, at the mouth of 



which it stopped, and entering it backward, drew in the victim 
in spite of its struggling, with the greatest facility. 
The following species are recorded as British. 

1. sabulosus Fab. ? .— ruficornis Panz. 77. 17-9 .— petiolatus 

Paiiz. 46. 12. ? var. 

Expanse 9 lines. Black, antennjB and legs ferruginous, 2 basal joints of 
the former black above ; base of thighs, excepting hinder pair, black ; in- 
ternal margin of eyes and 4 dots on the clypeus ferruginous; an inter- 
rupted line on the collar, a spot on the scutel, one under each wing, 4 on 
the body and a band near the apex, yellow. 
I took a female of this, and a male of the following, several 

years since in Suffolk ; and Capt. Blomer met with it, I believe, 

in the Isle of Man. 

2. fulvicornis Fab.— Curt. B. E. 580. $—Panz. 98. 18. c?.— 
frontalis Panz. 4'6. 1 1. c?? I consider these to be the males of 
the foregoing species, for the specimen I have figured agrees 
with Fabricius's description, although Panzer's plate does 
not, but this figure is evidently inaccurate, the antennae hav- 
ing J 8 joints. 

Black, shining, minutely and thickly punctured, hoary-pubescent; an- 
tennae and legs ferruginous, basal joint of the former black above, yellow 
beneath, 2nd black, a few of the following dusky above, thighs black at the 
base, inner margin of eyes and clypeus, a spot at the base of the mandibles, 
an interrupted line on the collar, a spot on the scutel, one beneath each 
wing, 2 on the 3rd segment of the abdomen and a band at the base of the 
6th, yellow ; tips of the 4 anterior thighs beneath of the same colour, and 
there is a minute spot on each side the 2nd joint. 

3. arvensis L/;«?i. — clavata Z)<?G. — U-flavum Paw2:. 1 7. 20. ? . — 
bipunctatus Fab. var. 

Male (Ji to 9 lines expanse. Black, antennee rufous beneath, basal joint 
yellow ; palpi, margins of eyes and clypeus and outside of mandibles yel- 
low ; a line on the collar, a spot on the scutel, 2 beneath each wing, a spot 
on each side the 2nd and 4th abdominal segments, a band on the 3rd and 
a narrow one on the 6th, yellow : legs ferruginous, yellow inside, base of 
thighs and a stripe on the inside of the 4 anterior tibiae black. Ohs. some- 
times the coxae and 3rd segment of the abdomen are spotted with yellow 
beneatli, and the 2 yellow basal spots above are wanting. Female 1 2 lines : 
similar to the male, excepting the abdomen ; on the nodule of the peduncle 
are 3 yellow dots, the 2nd, 3rd, and 5th segments are yellow, edges of the 2 
former black, and there is a large yellow spot on each side the4th. Obs. some- 
times there are only 2 dots on the peduncle or none, and occasionally the 3 
spots on the 4th segment form a band ; in others the face, except the inner 
margin of the eyes, and the antennae, except the basal joint, are black. 
The females are common on all sandy banks in August and 
September, and the males on the Fern. 

4. pratensis Jurine^ jd. 10. G. 19. ? . 

Lengtli 7 lines. Black, inner margin of eyes and clypeus, basal joint 
of antenna>, base of mandibles, a line on the collar, a spot on the scutel, 
2ii(l and 3rd segments of abdomen, and a band at the base of the 5th ? yel- 
low, coxnc trociianters and base of anterior thighs black. 

I have never seen a British specimen. 

Tlic Plant is Selimim palustrc {Msirah Milk-weed). 



<s&4 




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.. VJ.,.^'.^, /, ;>0.V 



584. 
ALYSON KENNEDII. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Crabronidae. 

Type of the Genus, Alyson bimaculatus Panz. 
Alyson Jur.,Panz.,Lat., V. Lind., Curt. — Pompilus Fab. 

Antennce remote at their insertion, which is a little below the 
middle of the face, at the base of the clypeus, longer than the 
head, filiform and 13-jointed in the male, basal joint longer, 
short and stout, 2nd subglobose, 3rd scarcely longer, 4th ob- 
long, the remainder nearly of equal length, apical joint subconic 
(1 (J); more curved, slender, a little clavate and 12 -jointed in 
the female, basal joint long and stout, 2nd obovate, nearly as 
long as the 1st, the latter shorter, the remainder subturbinate, 
gradually increasing in diameter and decreasing in length, apical 
joint elongate ovate (1 ? ). 

Lahrum inserted under the clypeus, transverse, pocket-shaped, 
anterior margin bisinuated, forming 3 lobes, sparingly ciliated 
with spines (2), 

Mandibles crossing, long and narrow, curved and concave, biden- 

tate at the apex and ciliated with bristles on both margins (3). 

Maxillce ovate, terminated by 2 incurved lobes, the inner one 

ovate and transparent, the outer one larger concave horny and 

hairy outside. Palpi long, pubescent and 6-jointed, basal joint 

small, chalice-shaped, 2 following elongated, of equal length, 

slightly clavate, 4th the longest, 5th nearly as long, both linear, 

6th as long as the 3rd elongate-ovate (4). 

Mentum oblong, rounded at the base, deeply emarginate on 

each side, before forming a lobe in the centre to receive the Palpi 

which are long, rough with hairs and 4-jointed, basal joint a 

little the longest and clavate, 2nd short obtrigonate, 3rd and 4th 

nearly as long as the 1st, the former subelliptic, the latter 

drooping and elongate -ovate (5). 

Males much smaller than the females. Head short and broad ; face 

orbicular ; clypeus tridentate : eyes entire and ovate : ocelli 3 in 

triangle. Thorax oblong ; collar narrow and rather elongated in the 

female, in lohich sex the postscutel has the angles acuminated ; loith 

an elongate-trigonate space on the back, furrowed obliquely on each 

side. Abdomen elongate-ovate, attenuated in the male and bispinose 

at the apex. Wings with 1 marginal, 3 complete submarginal (the 

2nd petiolated) and 3 discoidal cells (9). Legs not long but slender: 

thighs, posterior with a strong sharp tooth beneath at the apex (Sf) •• 

tibiae short, especially the anterior, and spurred at the apex : tarsi 

very slender, long and 5 -jointed, basal joint long, the 3 following 

obtrigonate in the anterior with the terminal joint stout and ovate, 

4th not much shorter than the 5th, in the others : claws a«c?pulvilli 

distinct. 

Kennedii Curt. Guide, Gen. 688. 1. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



The oeconomy of this genus is, I believe, unknown ; the males 
bear a little resemblance, I think, to the Mutillidse, and the I'e- 



males have tlie habit of the Pompili, but the neuration of the 
winn-s is hke that of Nysson : there is, however, a combination 
of characters which renders this a strongly marked genus ; the 
narrow collar, the striated postscutel more or less spined, and 
bearino' an escutcheon-shaped impression, and the large apical 
joint of the anterior tarsi characterize the females, whilst the 
males are distinguished by two small remote spines at the apex 
of the abdomen, and both sexes have a strong tooth at the 
apex of the posterior thighs, which, although distinct enough, 
is not readily seen except in profile. 

The only British specimen 1 have seen of this genus is the 
one figured, but I have heard of Mr. Kirby having another, 
and on the authority of the " Systematic Catalogue," the sexes 
of A. bimacidata were recorded in the Guide. As I have Ger- 
man specimens, I shall add the characters of the latter that it 
may be the more readily identified. 

1. A. Kennedii Curt. Brit. Ent. -pi. 584. 

Female black, very thickly and finely punctured, and clothed 
with very short ochreous pubescence; anterior margin of the 
clypeus and trophi ochreous and ferruginous, tips of mandibles 
piceous; antennee dark fuscous, underside of basal joint fer- 
ruginous, postscutellum bearing an elongated escutcheon, the 
sides obliquely furrowed ; two basal segments of abdomen and 
a small portion of the base of the 3rd rufous, with the edge of 
the 2nd silky white on the sides; wings iridescent, yellowish, 
nervures and marginal cell brown, as well as 2 spots beneath, 
forming an interrupted fascia: legs pitchy, anterior tarsi tibiae 
and tips of thighs ferruginous, the tarsi and apex of hinder 
tibiiE brown. 

I have the gratification of naming this unique insect after 
my friend Benjamin Kennedy, Esq., of Clapton, who was with 
me when 1 beat it out of an Oak growing in a hedge near 
Hastings, in August 1823. 

2. A. bimaculatus Panz. 51. 4. $. — Pompilus spinosus Panz. 
80. 17. var.l — Sphex fuscatus Panz. 51. 3. c?. 

Male black, shining, face below the antennas silvery with 
pubescence ; clypeus, a portion of the inner margin of the eyes, 
underside of basal joint of antennae, a line before the wings, 
2 spots on the scutellum, and one on each side the 2nd seg- 
ment of abdomen cream-colour, apex ferruginous ; legs ferru- 
ginous, darker outside, coxae and trochanters black, the latter 
spotted with white, anterior tibiaj inside and the posterior at 
the base whitish; nervures and stigma brown, with a faint 
transverse cloud : expanse 4| lines. Female larger, 6^ lines 
in expanse; the face, thorax," legs, &c. are similarly coloured, 
but the 1st and basal half of the 2nd segment of abdomen are 
rulous, the latter having the 2 cream-coloured spots ; the apex 
is black and the cloud on the wings distinct. 

The Plant is Sugina procumhens (Chickweed Breakstone). 




c^24^ 




,.j- /y o. c«yij^ /Lv. /.m^ 



524. 
GORYTES BICINCTUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Crabronidse. 

Type of the Genus, Sphex mystacea Linn. 
GoRYTES Lat., Spin., Van Lin., St. Farg., Curt. — Mellinus Fab., 
Panz. — Arjiactus Jur., Panz. — Sphex & Vespa Linn. 
Antenna inserted at the middle of the face, approximating, long, 
filiform, nearly straight and 13 -jointed in the male (1 (J), the 
basal joint subovate-truncate, 2nd cup-shaped, remainder long, 
of equal length, each joint slightly curved, the apical joint a 
little conical at the apex : not longer than the head and thorax 
in the female, curved, clavate and 12-jointed (1 g), basal joint 
rather the stoutest, subovate, 2nd small cup-shaped, 3rd and 4th 
long and slender, the remainder decreasing in length and in- 
creasingin diameter, apical joint elongate-ovate and alittle curved. 
Labrum transverse, very short, a little curved and ciliated with 
bristles, some very long (2). 

Mandibles crossed in repose, long, narrow, a little curved, with 
a few hairs outside, terminated by a strong tooth with a smaller 
one beneath it (3). 

MaxillcB with the basal portion large and nearly semiorbicular, 
terminated by two rounded hairy lobes. Palpi long, jiubescent, 
and 6-jointed, basal joint the shortest, 4th and 6th the longest, 
2nd and 3rd the stoutest, somewhat obovate, especially the 
latter, 4th and 5th clavate, 6th slender, conical at the apex (4). 
Mentum subquadrate, the basal angles dilated, with a rounded 
lobe in front which conceals the Lip. Palpi not short, very 
pubescent and 4 -jointed, basal joint a little the longest and 
clavate, the remainder nearly of equal length and obovate, ter- 
minal joint the slenderest and somewhat elliptical (5). 
Males smaller than the females. Head transverse, face orbicular: eyes 
elongate-ovate, narrowed above : ocelli 3 in triangle. Thorax globose : 
scutellum transverse-ovate. Abdomen ovate conical. "Wings with 
one marginal and 4 sub-marginal cells, the 2nd receiving 2 recurrent 
nervures. Legs rather short and stout in the female: thighs short: 
tibiae clavate, anterior with one, the others with 2 spines at the apex: 
tarsi 5-jointed, posterior the longest, anterior sometimes a little di- 
lated and ciliated in the females, basal Joint the longest, 4th the 
shortest : claws and pulvilli large in the female. 

BiciNCTUs Rossi. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 690. n. 8. 

Black; 2 basal joints of antennae yellow and the others ochreous 
beneath ; trophi and lower part of face yellow, apex of mandibles 
brown: collar, a dot on each side, and 2 spots on the scutellum, 
yellow ; a triangular space on the postscutellum finely striated ; 
basal joint of abdomen pear-shaped, with a yellow fascia divided 
in the middle, 2nd segment with a broad, 3rd with a narrow 
5'-ellow band, the former not touching the posterior margin : 
wings slightlyfuscous, the marginal, central submarginal, and the 
discoidal ceU below them, clouded with brown : legs ochreous, 
4 anterior coxae, and 1st pair of trochanters with yellow spots 
beneath ; thighs yellow beneath ; tibiae with a black streak out- 
side; tarsi ferruginous, brown towards the apex; posterior legs 
black, tibiae with a streak of yellow outside at the base. 



T 



So much confusion has been created by the misapplication of 
synonyms that I shall not attempt to unravel them, which is 
the less necessary as Mr. Shuckard will fully investigate them 
ill his Monogra})h on the Fossorial Insects. In the mean 
while the reader may consult Vander Linden's Obscrv. sur Ics 
llijmcn. (P Europe and an excellent paper of Le Pelt. St. Far- 
freau's in the 1st vol. of the Jivi. de la Soc. Ent. de France. 
" Gorytes is distinguished by the 2nd submarginal cell re- 
ceivino- <2. recurrent nervures, and the following divisions form 
as many genera in the Count's paper. 

Gorytes. Anterior tarsi simple in both sexes. 

1. mystaceus Linn.—Panz. 53. 11 ? .— campestris Linn. mr. 

the V. flavicincta Don. 13. 468. 1. is evidently an Ich- 
neumon ! 
I have found both sexes on young oaks the beginning of 

June in Coomb-wood; it is abundant at Hampstead and High- 

frate and at Glanville's Wootton, Mr. Dale. 

2. quadrifasciatus Fab. — Panz. 98. 17 c?. 

Hi«d)o-ate, Mr. Shuckard, to whom I am indebted for spe- 
cimens. 

3. arenarius Panz. 53. 12. I have never seen a British specimen. 

EuspoNGUs Le Pel. Anterior tarsi ciliated in the female. 

4. Libitinarius Curt. 

I took a male on flowers in a marsh at Horning, Norfolk, 
2kh of June; it is found also at Battersea, Hampstead and 
Hijili^ate. 

5. quinquefasciatus Panz. 53. 13 ? . I know this only by the 

fiijure. 

6. laticinctus Le Pel. 

I have a female from the collection of the late Mr. Lee, and 
another has been taken in the New Forest. 

HoPLisus Le Pel. Antennae obtuse in both sexes. 

7. quinquecinctus Panz. 72. J 4. — ruficornis Lat. 
I have never seen a British specimen. 

Lestiphorus Le Pel. 10th joint of antennee concave above 
in the male, filiform in the female : basal joint of abdomen 
forming a pear-shaped petiole. 

8. bicinctus Rossi. — Curt. Brit. Ent.pl. 524 S - 

The specimen figured stood for many years in my collection 
as an unique Insect, but Mr. Shuckard has lately met with 
a female taken in the New Forest by Messrs. Harding and 
Bond. 

The Plant is Schcenus {Cladiinn Schrad.) mariscus (Prickly 
Bog-rush). 



IS 




j66 



^e/irr«v\-t 



■' (rl\ 



25. 
PSEN EQUESTRIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Larridse Lat. 

Tr/pe of the Genus, Pelopseus compressicornis Fab. 

PsEN Lat., Jur., Panz., Van. Lind., Shuck., Curt. — Trypoxylon, Pelopaeus 
Fab. — Mimesa Shuck. 

AntentKE inserted near the centre of the face, clavate, curved, and 12- 
jointed in the female (1) : 13-jointed and more filiform in the male ; 
basal joint large, second small, terminal joint ovate. (1 (J.) 
Labrum transvei"se, subrotundate before, entire and ciliated. (2.) 
Mandibles slender, scarcely arcuated, bidentate, the teeth obtuse. (3.) 
Maxillce divided transversely, terminal lobe rounded and ciliated : 
Palpi longish, 6-jointed ; first joint very small, third the largest, fourth 
as long, fifth the longest, sixth long and slender. (4.) 
Mentum large, dilated in the centre, hairy (5. a. the point to which 
the maxilla is attached is shown at e.) : Palpi long, 4-jointed, first 
joint very long, second and third short, fourth robust, elongate-ovate. 
(b.) Lip short and broad, the edges conniving internally, (c.) 
Clypeus convex and rounded, anterior margin elevated. Head transverse, as 
broad as the thorax, with a tubercle between the antenna. Eyes oval, en- 
tire, remote. Ocelli 3, inserted on the crown in a triangle. Thorax short, 
nearly ovate. Scutellum small and subquadrate. Abdomen ovate-conic, 
with an elongated linear petiole. Superior wings with a lanceolate mar- 
ginal cell, not extending to the apex, and three perfect submarginal cells, 
the middle one trigonate, receiving either one or two recurrent nervures. 
Legs rather small. Tihise spuried. Tarsi 5 -jointed, basal joint ?iearlg 
as long as the three following, last terminated by simple claws and 'pulvilli. 
(8. afore leg.) 

Equestris Fab. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 691. 3. 

Black : clypeus and face silvery with hair, shining ; first segment of 
abdomen rufous, with a black spot at its base ; second entirely, and 
third partly, rufous in the female, with the 2nd segment only rufous 
in the male : wings hyaline, iridescent : antennae rufous beneath : 
thighs and coxae black : tibiae and tarsi pale ferruginous, the hinder 
tibiae subochreous at the base. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



The three lobes of the lip mentioned by Latreille in his observa- 
tions upon the Larridce, I could not discover in the species dis- 
sected ; and he does not mention that organ in his generic descrip- 
tion. The females from which the characters and figures are taken, 
are armed with sharp stings, that are not entirely concealed. 

In mv illustration of the genus PefnphcdoJi, fol. 632, I liave al- 

366 



luded to the economy of Psc?i atrattis {P. ater Lat. ?), and my re- 
marks have since been confirmed by Mr. A. Kennedy, who states 
in the Phil. Mag. for Jan. 1837, that "this insect has been ex- 
ceedingly numerous this year, using the straws in the thatch to 
deposit its prey in, in some of which I have counted as many as a 
hundred Aphides. The partitions appear to be made of the scrapings 
of the inside of the straw cemented together. The egg is white 
and semitransparent, and is attached to the abdomen of an Aphis 
near the bottom of the cell. The males first appeared the begin- 
ning of July, flying about the thatch and the neighbouring shrubs 
in thousands. They disappeared about the end of the month. 
The females did not become numerous until the 10th." — page 18. 

* 9,71(1 and 3rd suhmargvial cells, each receiving a recurrent nervure. 

1. compressicornis 7vz6. S • — T. atratum Fab. ? . — pallipes Spin, cf . 

— serraticornis Jur.pl. 8. Gen. 6. S • — ater Panz. 72. 7. c?. 

Rare, taken by Mr. Kirby in Suffolk, and I have once taken it 
probably in the same county. 

2. atratus Panz. 98. 15. — ater Lat.? — pallipes Panz. 52. 26. (^ ? 

End of June, bred one male and many females, out of straws from 
the roof of a summer-house at Bristol. 

** MiMESA Shuck. 2nd S2(b7nargi7ial cell receiving 2 recurre7it7ierviires. 

3. equestris Fah. — Curt. Brit. E7it.pl. 25. ? . — rw^a.Pa7iz. 96. 17. S' 

This pretty little species I took flying near Lyndhurst in the 
New Forest the end of August 1822, and I have since taken it the 
end of July on Hampstead Heath in company with Ce7xeris are- 
naria, pi. 269. 

4. bicolor Jur. pi. 13. ^. 

Females taken with the last species on Hampstead Heath the end 
of July ; also on Blackheath, and on banks of gravel at Coomb-wood. 

5. unicolor Van. Li7id. part 2. p. 105. 

Darent-wood, Mr. Shuckard; in posts and rails, North Wales, 
Mr. F. Walker. 

The plant is Ra7iu7iculus Ficaria, Common Pilewort. 



^ 




JU:-^cI.^^,aA^(-^ <^ <^2P 



269. 
CERCERIS L^TA. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Crabronidae Lat.^ Leach. 

Type of the Genus, Cerceris Iseta Fab. 

Cerceris Lat., Leach., Sam. — Phllanthus Fab., Jur., Panz. 

AntenncE inserted near the middle of the face, approximating, 
thickened towards the extremity, 13-jointed in the males, 12- 
jointed in the females, basal-joint the longest robust, 2nd glo- 
bose, 3rd slender, longer than the following, which gradually 
become more robust, terminal joint ovate at the apex (]). 
Labrum entirely concealed, naked, transverse, with 2 lateral 
lobes and a central one elevated and emarginate (2). 
Mandibles remote, crossing, very long, curved, dilated and sinu- 
ated on the inside, deeply notched and pilose near the base (3). 
Maxillce with the stalk long and horny, terminated by a large 
lobe, coriaceous and pilose at the marginj also a large horny 
lobe on the inside with a larger membranous appendage. Palpi 
6-jointed, basal joint small, the remainder of equal length, 2nd 
and 3rd truncated obliquely, 4th and 5th subclavate, 6th the 
slenderest (4). 

Mentum long, horny, linear, the anterior angles hollowed to re- 
ceive the Palpi, which are 4-jointed, basal joint long, the re- 
mainder shorter of equal length, the 2nd and 3rd a little dilated. 
Lip rather short, membranous pubescent, the central lobe cleft 
(5c), the lateral ones the narrowest (d). 
Head transverse, subquadr ate ; face Jlat. Nasus sviall semicircular 
entire. Eyes elongate ovate. Ocelli 3 in triangle. Thorax oval, 
narrower than the head. Abdomen elliptic, strangulated at the 
union of the articulations, 7 -jointed in the males, 6-jointed in the 
females, the 1st segment nodif or m, terminal joint narrotved,Jlat and 
truncated. Superior wings with 1 marginal and 4 submarginal 
cells, the 2nd being petiolated. Legs robust. Tibiae clavate, an- 
terior producing a long spine at the apex, dilated internally ; pos- 
terior serrated and spurred. Tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint the longest, 
anterior producing strong spiny appendages on the outside. Claws 
simple. Pulvilli distinct {8, afore leg). 



L^TA Fab. Ent. Syst. v. 2. p. 291. n. 10. 

Female. Black, strongly punctured and pubescent. Antennae 
ferruginous beneath towards the base, excepting the 1st joint. 
Three yellow spots on the face, 2 on the collar, one on each 
scapula, the base of the post-scutellum and a spot on each side 
of the same colour. Abdomen banded with yellow, forming a 
lunular spot on each side the 1st joint, a large emarginate band 
on the 2nd ; slender bands on the 3rd and 4th, and a deep oval 
one on the 5 th. Wings slightly fuscous, the margins darker. 
Legs bright fulvous, coxae and base of thighs piceous, except in the 
hinder pair which are dentated beneath and piceous at the apex. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



The Cercerides are well characterized by the singular form 
of their abdomens, the segments being coarctate, or girted in 
at their margins, and the petiolated submarginal cell of the 
superior wings will also distinguish them from neighbouring 



genera *. 



They are generally found in sandy and heathy situations ; 
and the males, which have an additional joint to their antennae 
as well as to their abdomens, are much rarer than the females, 
from which they also frequently vary in their mar-kings. 
They nourish their larvae (Latreille informs us) with the dead 
bodies of the Andrenae (a genus of bees, plate 129), which 
they place at the bottom of their nests in the manner of the 
Sphecidae. 

Our British species are 

1. C. laeta Fab. mas. — Curtis Brit. Ent. pi. 269. fem. — 

aurita Fab. fem. — Lat. 
The females of this insect were abundant last August, 
entering holes in sandy places at the back of the Isle of Wight, 
and also at Ramsdown in Hampshire; but it is remarkable 
that I never saw a single male. 

2. C. quinquecincta Fab. mas. — Panz.63. 12. — quadricinc- 

tus Panz. 63. 1 3. Jem. 
Found in June in sandy places, also in July, I believe, by 
Mr. Dale on Parley Heath. 

3. C. labiata Fab.— Panz. 63. 16.— Sturm Verz. t. S.f. 7. 
This species with its singular labrum I have taken in Nor- 
folk. 

4. C. quadrifasciata ? Fab. — Panz. 63. 14-. mas. 

I took a male flying amongst heath the 30th July. 

5. C. ornata Fab. — Panz. Q3. 10. fem. 

I once met with this insect either in Norfolk or Suffolk. 
The plant is Mentha rotimdifolia Smith (Round-leaved 
Mint). 



• The dissections were made from a female, and in some of the plates the 5th 
and 6th joints of the maxillary Palpi are wanting, the first specimen examined 
having been injured. 



^5 





/ 



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3 



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273. 
PHILANTHUS ANDROGYNUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Crabronidae Lat.^ Leach. 

Type of the Genus, Crabro Androgynus Rossi. 

Philanthus Fah., Panz., Lat. — Simblephilus Jur. — Crabro Uossi. 
AntenncE remote, inserted in front of the face, short, robust, vel- 
vety, attenuated towards the base, 13-jointed in the males j 12- 
jointed in the females ; basal joint scarcely longer than the 3rd, 
2nd subglobose, 3rd obconic-truncate, the remainder subqua- 
drate, terminal joint semiovate (1). 

Labrum transverse, sides somewhat reflexed, anterior margin 
sinuated, producing a tongue or membrane beneath, lobed in the 
centre, with a small tubercle surrounded with a few long hairs (2) . 
Mandibles large, long, bent, acute, crossing when at rest, nar- 
rowed suddenly below the middle and slightly pilose (3), 
MaxillcB thick, attached by a long incurved stalk, and terminated 
by an oval pubescent lobe, with a smaller one below. Palpi 
short and slender 6-jointed, basal joint minute, 2nd the longest, 
clavate, the remainder of nearly equal length, the terminal one 
very slender and subfusiform (4). 

Mentum long, fusifonn, incurved at the base. Lip large, broad, 
cordiform, membranous and pubescent. Palpi shorter than the 
lip, composed of 4 nearly equal subclavate joints, the terminal 
one obovate (5). 
Head very broad and orbicular, Clypeus quadridentaie, the 2 central 
teeth the largest. Eyes notched on the inside. Ocelli 3 in triangle. 
Thorax oval. Abdomen ovate conic. Superior Wings with 1 mar- 
ginal and 4 submarginal cells. Legs strong. Tibiae, anterior with 
a long spine at the apex producing a dilated andmembranous margin, 
the A posterior spined. Tarsi 5 -jointed, basal joint very long, 4th 
the shortest, the former emarginate at the base in the anterior pair 
and with the 2nd, 3rd and 4th producing long lanceolate appendages 
on the outside. Claws simple. Pulvilli distinct {8, fore leg of a fe- 
male from which sex all the dissections were made). 



Androgynus iJossi. — pictusPanz.,F(36. — apivorusLa^ — diadema Jwr. 
Female. Head and thorax black, shining, pubescent and thickly 
punctured, the face below the antennae pale amber, and a line 
behind the eyes ochreous. Trophi ferruginous, the mandibles 
tipped with black ; a transverse line on the collar, another at the 
base of the postscutellum, and a spot on each scapula pale yel- 
low : the postscutellum very minutely and thickly punctured. 
Abdomen and legs yellow, the former with a few scattered punc- 
tures, the base black, every segment, excepting the apical one 
with a black band at the base forming a triangle in the centre, 
but very small on the penultimate joint. Coxae and base of thighs 
black, tarsi slightly ochreous. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



Philantiius was not known to inhabit this country until last 
autumn, when I discovered specimens at the back of the Isle 
of Wight, and afterwards near Heron Court, in company with 
the Hon. Charles Harris, the middle and end of August. They 
were either resting upon the ground amongst multitudes of 
bees (Andrena?, &c.), and of the Cerceris lately figured, or 
were flying over grassy places at the borders of a corn-field, 
and settling upon Hawk's-weed and other flowers. 

Latreille's account of this fine insect is too interesting to be 
omitted. They do not, it appears, live in society, but both 
sexes are found upon flowers in sandy districts ; the female 
burrows in the earth; and placing a bee there, most commonly 
an Andrena, which she has killed, deposits an egg near and 
closes up the hole. 

The same author says, the P. apivorus (which is our insect) 
is a dangerous enemy to the hive-bee. The females dig, in 
light soil, on a declivity exposed to the sun, a gallery almost 
horizontal, and about a foot deep ; she employs her mandibles 
and her feet to raise and remove the earth, which is collected 
as she proceeds with her labour. When their nest is finished 
they go and search the flowers to find a bee, which they kill 
by piercing it with their sting where the head or abdomen is 
united to the thorax, and afterwards carry it to the end of 
their burrow. As each female lays at least five or six eggs, it 
follows that the same number of bees are destroyed; and con- 
sequently when they abound in the neighbourhood of hives, it 
is probable that they do great mischief. 

Mclamj)yrum arve?isc (Purple Cow-wheat), the local and 
beautiful plant figured, I have gathered from the end of July 
to the beginning of September, in corn-fields at the top of the 
Cliff in the neighbourhood of Niton in the Isle of Wight, 
where it is sometimes so abundant that the bread is discoloured 
and rendered unwholesome by the vast quantity of the seeds 
which are mixed with the wheat. 



X37 





(J'd/./y <J'&>M.ji^^ Oct.- /: /m 



3- )t^^ 

137. 

ODYNERUS PARIETINUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Vespidse LaL, Leach. 
Type of tke Genus Vespa parietinus Linn. 
Odynerus Lat., Leach. — Vespa Linn., Fab., Panz. 

Antennce inserted in the centre of the face^ approximating, 
slightly geniculated, subclavate, 13-jointed in the male, the 2 
last joints forming a small claw j 12-jointed in the female, 1st 
joint long, 2nd small, 3rd not so long as the first, the remainder 
short, terminal joint ovate (fig. 1, antenna of female). 
Labrum dilated at the base, where it is concealed by the clypeus, 
narrow and elongated towards the apex which is ciliated (2). 
Mandibles when at rest forming a beak, elongated, acute, slightly 
bent, having 5 blunt teeth on the internal margin (3). 
MaxUlcE corneous below the palpi, coriaceous above, membranous 
at the margins, terminal lobe elongated hairy, somewhat articu- 
lated near the apex, internal lobe small hairy. Palpi longer than 
the maxillae, 6-jointed, the 2 first the most robust, the 3 first of 
equal length rather longer than the others, terminal joint ovate (4). 
Mentum corneous, elongate, emarginate, (5 a) : Palpi shorter 
than the lip, slender, 4-jointed, 2 first long clavate, 3rd short, 
4th small ovate (b) : Lip coriaceous, striated transversely, elon- 
gated, dilated, and bilobed at the apex, each lobe terminated by 
a gland (c) : Paraglossce shorter than the lip, glandular at the 
apex (d). 
Head orbicular. Clypeus convex, cordiform, emarginate at the apex. 
Eyes deeply emarginate. Ocelli 3, in triangle. Thorax ovate qua- 
drate. Scutellum rounded. Abdomen ovoid-conic, peduncle very 
short, basal joint somewhat contracted, bell-shaped, 2nd large. 
Wings ; superior folded when at rest, with 1 marginal and 3 perfect 
submarginal cells. Tibiae spurred. Tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint long, 
4th very short, cleft. Claws bijid. PuWilW distinct {8, afore leg). 
Females and Neuters armed with stings. Larvae omnivorous. 



Parietinus Linn. Faun. Suec. p. 418, n. 1C79. 

Female. Black, punctured, pubescent. Antennae, basal joint be- 
neath yellow, the remainder orange ; a spot at the base of each 
mandible, 2 small spots at the apex, and 2 lunular at the base 
of the clypeus, one between the antennae and a very minute one 
behind each eye, yellow. Thorax with a bilobed yellow spot on 
the anterior margin, a small one beneath each wing and 2 larger 
upon the scutellum of the same colour. Wings slightly fuscous, 
stigma ferruginous. Abdomen shining, sparingly punctured, basal 
joint yellow at the posterior margin, leaving a triangular black 
space in the centre, 4 following joints with a broad yellow mar- 
gin, terminal joint with a large yellow spot in the middle. Thighs 
yellow at the apex. Tibiae yellow, ferruginous at the apex, an- 
terior with a black stripe on the outside, the others on the inside, 
next the apex. Tarsi ferruginous, inclining to fuscous. 
In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



SoiME wasps, like the bees, live in society, constructing nests 
composed of cells, but formed of very different materials. The 
Odyncri on the contrary do not unite to form a nest to live 
in, whence they are called Solitary Wasps : their economy, 
however, is exceedingly curious, and they exhibit a degree of 
instinct w^hich can scarcely be surpassed. Their eggs are de- 
iiosited in cells made in old walls or sandy banks, about which 
the species may be found in June, as well as upon flowers. 

My friend Mr. Charles Fox detected upon the top of a book, 
across which another was laid, some cells of a somewhat trian- 
o-iilar form, covered externally with mud and formed of a silky 
substance within : he very obligingly transmitted the book to 
me last winter, and in the spring nearly 20 specimens of the in- 
sect figured made their appearance; they were all females, and 
did not vary in the least. I have no doubt of their being the 
Fespa j)arietinus of Linnasus's Faun. Suec. of which there is no 
figure that I am acquainted with. Panzer's V. parietina being 
the V. muraria Linn. It is very easily distinguished from our 
other species by the unclouded wings and the entire orange 
underside of the antennae. 

The following species are in the Author's cabinet. 

1 O. spinipes Z,., Panz. 17. 18. 

2 pictus Nob. 

3 murarius L. — parietina Panz. 49. 24?. 

4 Scoticus Nob. 

5 Antilope Panz. 53. 9. 

6 parietus L., Schcejf. Icon. 24. 3 ? 

7 similis Nob. — quadratus Don. Brit. Ins. 14. 495. 2. 

8 nigi'icornis Nob. 

9 parietinus Linn. Faun. Suec. 1679. 

10 quadratus Panz. 63. 3. 

11 angulatus Don. 14. 495. 1. 1. 

12 flavipes Nob. 

13 6-fasciatus? Fab. 

14 4-fasciatus ? iv?6. 

15 emarginatus Fab. 

16 bidens Linn. S. N. 2. 951. 16. 

17 connexus Nob. 

0. pictus has a very shining abdomen. 

O. Scoticus has rufous tibiae and tarsi. 

O. similis may be only a variety of O. parietus. 

O. Jiigricornis has the apex of the abdomen and antennae, ex- 
cept at the base, black. 

O.Jlavipcs may be only the male of No. 1 0. 

O. connexus is like No. 16, but has an entirely black thorax. 
The campanulate and narrow basal joint of these 2 species 
approaches the form of Eumenes. 

Borage officinalis (Common Borage) accompanies the insect. 



4c 





< %^.(^ d-^6> I^d^ ^rrij^ / /<^ V 






13. 

EUMENES ATRICORNIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Vespidae. 

Ti/pe of the Genus, Eumenes atricornis Fab. 

EuMENES Lat., Fab., Curt. — Vespa Linn., Fab. 

Antenna as long as the thorax, inserted in the centre of the face, ap- 
proximating, slightly geniculated, thickened towards the apex, 13- 
jointed in the male, 1st and 3rd joints the longest, 2nd small, 4th 
oblong, the remainder decreasing in length and increasing in diameter 
to the apical joint which forms an incurved claw (1 ^) ; 12-jointed in 
the female, basal joint the longest, terminal one conical ( ? ). 
Labrum elongate-trigonate, quadrate at the base, the apex rounded 
and ciliated (2). 

Mandibles exserted meeting at the apex and forming a rostrum or 
beak, long and narrow with three notches forming 4 teeth on the in- 
ternal margin, rounded at the apex (3). 

MaxilliE with the terminal process elongated narrow lanceolate cor- 
neous at the base, coriaceous and ciliated towards the apex. Palpi a 
little longer than the maxillary process, slender and 6-jointed, 2 first 
joints long, 3rd shorter, the remainder slender and shorter, decreasing 
in length, the apical one being minute (4). 

Mentum (5 a) long, narrow, cylindric and contracted above the inser- 
tion of the Palpi which are long slender and 4-jointed, two first joints 
long and clavate, 3rd half the length of the 2nd, 4th very small {b). 
Labium coriaceous, striated transversely, longer than the mentum, di- 
lated at the apex and bilobed, each lobe ciliated and glandular at the 
apex (c). Paraglossce shorter than the lip, narrowed and ciliated to- 
wards the apex and terminated by a gland {d). 
Males 7nore slender than the females, the latter armed with a sting. Head 
orbicular, clypeus notched : eyes much less remote above in the male than 
female, deeply notched above the antennee : ocelli 3 in triangle near the 
crown. Thorax globular ; collar very narrow in the centre, forming 2 di- 
lated trigonate lobes on the sides. Abdomen arched, loith the basal seg- 
ment contracted and campanulate, the remainder forming an ovate conic 
mass, the 2nd segment being very large. Wings, superior folded longi- 
tudinally, with one marginal and 3 complete submarginal cells. Legs rather 
short and not stout, anterior the shortest. Tibiae clavate, spurred at the 
apex. Tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint very long in the posterior, the others 
very short in the anterior: claws bifd ; pulvilli distinct (8, afore leg). 



Atricornis Fab. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 696. 1. 

In the Author s and other Cabinets. 



The genus Eumenes is composed of a portion of those Wasps that 
are solitary in their habits; not congregating and forming nests like 
the common Wasps and Hornets. 



Eumenes may probably, at a future period, be separated into two 
frenera; but as I cannot detect any important differences in the tro- 
phi, after tlie most careful examination, I shall only propose to make 
two divisions of them : the 1st (which appears to be the tropical type) 
may contain the species with a slender petiole as long or longer than 
the abdomen ; the 2nd (which is the European form), those with the 
petiole stout and shorter than the body, in which the trophi, agree- 
ino- with the habit of the insects, are also shorter and more robust 
than in the other division. 

Fabricius, in his Sijstema Piezatorum, described 23 species, four 
of which only were European, and Panzer has figured 4 more; but 
the o-enus was not known to inhabit Britain until my friend the Rev. 
W. Kirby (equally celebrated for his invaluable works and for his 
acute observations) discovered it in an entomological excursion with 
Mr. Dale on the borders of Hampshire and Dorset, July 3rd, 1821. 
It has since been taken the beginning of June, on a bank in the New- 
Forest; and Mr. Bentley found it, the middle of the same month, 
settling upon different species of the Ericae on Parley Heath. Mr. 
Dale has met with it there in July, and the end of August 1822 I 
captured two on the same heath upon gravelly and dry banks, and 
at the same period met with the female flying about the heath at 
Ramsdown, a beautiful spot near Heron Court, Hampshire, be- 
longing to the Earl of Malmesbury. 

1. E. atricornis Fah. Syst. Piez. v. 289- 17.— Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 13 ? . 
Black, shining, very pubescent. 

Male ; head and thorax rather coarsely punctured ; basal joint of antennce 
beneath yellow, 2 or 3 of the apical joints beneath and the claw ochreous ; 
labrum and clypeus nearly to the antennae, and a spot between them yel- 
low ; anterior margin of thorax, a lunular mark on the scapulars and the 
posterior margin of the scutellum yellow : peduncle short and bell-shaped, 
very deeply punctured with the hinder margin yellow : abdomen more 
minutely punctured except at the base, the large segment with an ovate 
spot on each as well as its posterior margin and those of the 2 following 
segments yellow ; wings fuscous, the costa subferruginous : legs yellow, 
thighs black except at their tips, and a black spot on the under side of 
the anterior tibia;. 

Female. Antennae entirely black, a yellow spot below and another be- 
tween them : thorax as in the male with a yellow spot also under each 
Aving and one on each side the postscutellum ; there are sometimes 2 mi- 
nute yellow spots on the peduncle, the spots on the side of the abdomen 
are longer, and the yellow margin of the large segment deeper and sinu- 
ated. 

The Plant figured is the beautiful Erica Tetralix (Cross-leaved 
Heath). ^ 



j6o 







760. 

VESPA RUFA. 

The Anchor-faced Wasp. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Vespidae. 

Tyiie of the Genus, Vespa vulgaris Linn. 
Vespa Linn., Fab., Curt., 8;c. 

Antennae inserted near the middle of the face, remote, longer 
than the thorax in the males, slightly attenuated to both extre- 
mities, 13-jointed, basal joint long, hairy, curved, 2nd cup- 
shaped, 3rd the longest, remainder oblong, apical joint ovate- 
conic (1 (5^) : not longer than the thorax in the female and neu- 
ter, 12-jointed, basal and 3rd joints longer, the remainder more 
quadrate than in the male, apical joint short and conical (1 ? ). 
Labrum semiovate, w^ith a rigid, linear, ciliated, projecting pro- 
cess in front (2). 

Mandibles truncated obliquely, denticulated, having 3 teeth (3). 
Maxilla terminating in a long hairy process, with a smaller 
subovate trigonate lobe at the apex. Palpi moderate, slender, 
slightly pubescent and 6-jointed, basal joint slender, clavate, 
2nd a little stouter, 3rd the largest, longer, obconic, truncated 
obliquely, 4th and 5th the same shape but smaller, 6th the 
longest and slenderest, subfusiform (4). 

Mentum oblong, narrowed towards the base. Palpi attached 
to the anterior angles, tolerably long, pubescent and 4-jointed, 
elongate-pyriform, 2nd the longest subclavate, 3rd the stoutest, 
short, obtrigonate, 4th small ovate. Lip large, 4-lobed, the 
centre a little narrowed and cleft at the apex, with a spreading 
rounded lobe on each side, with a callous or glandular patch 
at the apex of each (5). 
Head transverse, face ovate (R) .• eyes long, notched internally : ocelli 
3 in triaiigle on the crown. Thorax broader than the head, oval, col- 
lar bilobed ; scutel large, transverse and semiovate. Abdomen 
ivith a short petiole attached to the inferior surface of the base 
which is truncated abruptly, long ovate and 7 -jointed in the male, 
the apex conical j shorter, broader, and 6-jointed in the female ; an 
acute stirig in the female and neuter. Wings folding longitudinally ; 
superior with 1 marginal and 4 submarginal cells. Legs stoutest in 
the female ; thighs tapering at the apex : tibiae short, hinder the 
longest, all spurred, anterior withonly one spine: tarsi longish, especi- 
ally the hinder, 4 anterior a little dilated in the female, 5-jointed, 
basal joint the longest, 2nd and 3rd obtrigonate or crescent-shaped, 
4th bifid, 5th clavate : claws and pulvilli moderate. 



RuFA Linn. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 697. 3. 



Wasps, like the hive-bee and ants, live in societies, which 
consist of three different kinds of individuals, males, females, 
and neuters or workers. The male wasp has no sting, is as 
long as the female, but much more slender and elegant in form, 
and more handsomely marked with black ; the female is the 
largest sex and armed with a sting, as is also the neuter, 
which is a miniature likeness of her. 



The female lives through the winter, and deposits her eggs 
early in the spring in cells formed by herself; these eggs, ac- 
cordino- to the observations of authors, produce only neuters, 
which immediately form a colony or nest; the males next ap- 
pear, and afterwards the females. Wasps scrape posts and 
timber to form their nests ; they live upon fruit, will eat meat, 
and they are very dexterous in catching flies. 

The insects that inhabit their nests, and probably prey upon 
the larvae, are Dromius linearis (fol. 231): Rhipiphorus jpara- 
doxus (pi. 19), supposed by the Rev. E. Bigge to have been 
an Ichneumon; Anomalon Vesparum (pi. 198); and the larva 
of Volucella inflatal (pi. 452) ; and on the Continent V. gal- 
lica is infested with a Xenos. 

1. V. Crabro Linn. — Don. 14. pi. 502. The hornet is found 
in May, August, September, and October, and builds its 
nest in hollow trees and in thatched roofs. 

2. vulgaris Linn. — Don. 7. pi. 226. ? — Patiz. 49. 19 ? Found 
from March to December, and builds its nest in the ground, 
of fibres of wood scraped from sotmd timber, as observed 
by the late Mr. T. A. Knight. 

3. rufa Linn.— Curt. B. E. pi. 760. ^ and ? . 

Male black, clothed with silky hair : antennae with a yellow stripe on the 
inside of the basal joint and a dot at the apex ; orbits of eyes, excepting 
the upper internal portion, a subquadrate space between the antennae, 
outside of mandibles and clypeus yellow, the latter nearly divided by a 
long trilobed spot : margins of collar, scapulars, 2 spots below them, and 
2 on the scutel yellow : abdomen bright yellow, the black basal bands and 
spots more or less edged with ferruginous ; basal segment black only next 
the thorax with 3 black spots across the middle, 2nd and following seg- 
ments with a black band at the base, and a black dot on each side, the 
2nd with a large black spot in the centre united with the band, the 
remainder angulated only in the centre and decreasing in depth : costa 
and some of the nervures yellowish, the others brown, stigma pale fer- 
ruginous : legs deep yellow, coxae, trochanters, and thighs, excepting the 
apex, black ; inside of tibiae ferruginous, anterior with a black streak. 
Female black, spot on the clypeus anchor-shaped (R) ; no yellow spot 
at tip of basal joint of antennse, the stripe very narrow ; no black bands 
visibel, except on the 2nd segment, but there are semicircular streaks on 
the 3rd and 4th, the dorsal spots larger ; 1st and sometimes 2nd pair of 
tibiae with piceous patches on the inside. Neuter, spots on the clypeus 
more or less anchor-shaped ; no yellow streak on the antennae : abdo- 
men like the female, but the spots on the basal segments are more or 
less, sometimes entirely ferruginous ; tibiae seldom piceous inside. 
At once distinguished by the anchor-shaped mark on the 
face, which is represented only by a spot in V. vidgaris. It 
constructs its nest oi rotten wood, and I once found an im- 
mense number under a clod of earth. The 3 lines in the 
plate show the length of the sexes. 

4. Britannica Leach, Zool. Misc. 2. 112. p/. 50. May and 
July, building globular nests attached to trees, bushes, and 
roofs, from the size of an apple to a man's head. Mr. Bigge 
has published a very interesting memoir on this wasp and 
V. vulgaris in the Transactions of the Ashmolean Society. 

Polijcarpon tctraphylluin, Four-leaved All-seed, from Slap- 
ton, Devon, was communicated by Joseph Janson, Esq. 



373 





s ^ 



<yi,^. ^ <j.- ^^^iS^c/^/. /■ Xi J/ 



373. 
HYLyEUS DILATATUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Andrenidae. 

Tyjte of the Genus, Apis annulatus Linn. 

HvLiEUS hat.. Curt. — Prosopis Jur., Fab., Panz. — Melitta Kirb. — 
Apis Linn. — Sphex Panz. — Vespa Rossi. 

Antennce inserted between the eyes near the middle of the face, 
approximating, rather short, subfiliform and 13-jointed in the 
males, basal joint long, robust and slightly pubescent, 2nd sub- 
globose, 3rd scarcely larger, the remainder subquadrate, slightly 
increasing in diameter, apical joint conical (I): 12-jointed in 
the females basal joint long and slender, 2nd and 3rd of equal 
size, the remainder transverse or quadrate, terminal joint coni- 
cal (1 a). 

Labrum transverse-oval, ciliated with rather broad but acute 
bristles (2). 

Mandibles slightly curved, hairy, bifid at the apex (3). 
M axil ice ; the stalk long, terminated by a short bent ovate lobe, 
acuminated and ciliated with long bristles at the apex (4). Palpi 
long and 6-jointed, basal joint scarcely so long as the 2nd, which 
with the others are of nearly equal length, excepting the terminal 
joint which is a little longer and very slender, the 4th and 5th 
clavate (b). 

Mentum long, subelliptical, acuminated before in the centre (5). 
Lip very short, with a lobe on each side (c). Palpi rather short, 
4-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints of equal size, 3rd a little smaller, 
4th slender (b). 
Head orbicular, transverse. Eyes long and lateral. Ocelli 3 in tri- 
angle. Thorax globose. Abdomen ovate or conic, convex, distinctlif 
attached by a short peduncle. Wings with one marginal and 2 sub- 
marginal cells. Legs alike in both sexes, slender arid clothed only 
with short hairs. Thighs and tibiae rather short and robust, the 
latter spurred, the anterior pair having an acute spine at the apex, 
with a dilated internal edge. Tarsi long and 5-jointed, basal joint 
in the anterior pair notched on the inside at the base and pectinated. 
Claws simple. Pulvilli distinct (8, afore leg). 



The convex and almost naked bodies of these little insects 
give them so different a habit, and the structure of the labium 
is so dissimilar to the rest of the family (excepting Colletes, 
pi. 85), that they have been placed at the commencement of 
the Andrenidae both by Mr. Kirby and Mons. Latreille. 



The following British species I shall characterize, as far as 
I am able. 

1. H. annulatus Z/Ww.-F. S. n. 1706. — Curt. Guide, Gcfi.698. 1. 

— Kirb. tab. 15. f. 3. 

Black, face spotted with white, posterior tibiae annulated 
with the same colour. 

Found in the flowers of the Resedae in July, at Barham in 
Suffolk, and in many other places. 

2. H. annularis A7ri?/ 2. p. 38. 4. — annulata Pajiz. 53. 1. 
Black, face spotted and all the tibiae annulated with yellow. 
Found with the preceding insect the end of June and July, 

at Barham and Wrentham in Suffolk, and elsewhere. 

3. H. signatus Pcmz. 53. 2.— Don. 12. 421. l.—Kirb. 2. 41. 6. 
Black, face spotted fulvous ; basal segment of body with 

the margin on each side white. 

Found with the others, and is common round London. 

4. H. dilatatus Kir. t. 15./. 4. — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 37". inas. 
Black, rather shining, thickly and minutely punctured, 

slightly sericeous : antenna? with the 1st and 2nd joints black, 
the former dilated and yellow beneath, the 3rd and following 
fulvous, with a black line above, the face yellow: thorax with 
a yellow spot before the wings, postscutellum rugose : abdo- 
men very finely punctured, the short pubescence towards the 
apex, yellowish : wings slightly tinted, squamulae yellow, fer- 
ruginous, and black ; stigma and nervures piceous : legs black, 
tips of the thighs, tibia? and tarsi yellow, the apex of the latter 
fulvous. 

Found at Barham and at Wrentham the end of June. 

5. H. pallidens Kir. MSS. 

The maxilla?, the 4 posterior tibiae at the base and their 
tarsi are yellowish. 

Taken 1 believe by Mr. Kirby at Barham. 

G. H. cornutus Kir. MSS. 

Clypeus bidentate ; antennae fulvous beneath ; posterior 
tibia? with yellowish rings. 

Taken also, I believe, by Mr. Kirby. 

7. 11. geniculatus Leach. — bifasciatus? Jur. pi. 11. Gen. 30. 

If this be Jurine's insect, it is black, the antennae fulvous, 
the face and thorax with several yellow spots, the anterior 
tibia? and the base of the posterior of the same colour, the 1st 
and 2nd joints of the abdomen red, the anterior margins black. 

In the British Museum, and said to have been taken by 
Dr. Leach in Devonshire. 

Tlie Plant is Reseda Liiteola (Weld or Wolds). 



II 






(JJ' 






J:^^(J'. (L-tiL — /inin C^. / /(SZs 






85. 
COLLETES FODIENS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Andienidse Lat., Leach. 

Type of the Genus Apis succincta Linn. 

CoLLETES Lat., Sic. Melitta *a Kirby. Andrena Fah.y Jur. Apis 
Linn., &;c. 

AntenncE inserted near the middle of the face^ distant, the 3rd 
joint longer than the 2nd ; — in the male filiform^ 13-jointed, ba- 
sal joint with a tuft of hair (f. 1 ) ; — in the female, slightly clavate, 
12-jointed, basal joint hairy, much longer than in the male (la). 
Labrum convex, trigonate, with a transverse suture, strongly ci- 
liated (2). 

Mandibles long, linear, curved, hairy, dilated at the base, notched 
near the apex upon the internal edge (3), 

Maxilla; rigid below the palpus, terminated by a single, oval, 
scarcely coriaceous lobe, ciliated and bent inward (4 a). Palpi 
subsetaceous, longer than the maxilla, 6-jointed (b). 
Mentum very long, linear, attenuated at the base, produced in 
the centre anteriorly (5 a). Palpi longer than the lip, 4-jointed, 
3 first joints somewhat clavate, basal joint the largest (b). Lijt 
hairy, dilated at the apex deeply emarginate, with 2 lateral, 
small obtuse lobes (c). 
Head as broad as the thorax. Eyes lateral. Ocelli 3, in a curved line. 
Thorax globular. Scutellum semicircular. Abdomen convex, ovate- 
conic, tomentose or hirsute, narrower in the males. Wings pubescent 
towards their posterior margins. Superior with 1 marginal, pedicled 
cell, and 3 submarginal cells, the 2nd and 3rd receiving recurrent 
nerves. Posterior legs of female very hairy, polimigerous. Tibiae 
with 2 long spines at the apex, I ciliated. Tarsi, basal joint long, 
robust, 2nd large clavate, 3id clavate slender, 4ih minute, oth long 
clavate. Claws bifid. Pul villi very distinct (Sf hind leg of female). 
Males smaller than the females, solitary, without neuters. 



FoDiENS Kirhfs Mon. Ap. Ang. v. 1. p. 130. &; v. 2. p. 34. n. 2. 

Male black, face and thorax punctured, thickly covered with fus- 
cous-ochraceous soft hair. Abdomen punctured, especially tlie 
basal segment, which has a whitish margin of short hair as well 
as the 4 following, forming 5 transverse bands. Wings stained 
with dull yellow, slightly iridescent, fuscous at the apex. Female 
black, face thickly covered with yellowish ferruginous hair. Cly- 
peus naked, rugulose. Thorax and scutellum punctured, thickly 
covered with vellovvish ferruginous hair. Abdomen with the 
basal joint more deeply punctured than the others, with an 
ochraceous tomentose spot on each side at the base, and a white 
spot of hair on each side at the margin, 2nd joint with a band of 
pale ochraceous hair at the base, and another at the margin, the 
3 following segments with a band of ochraceous hair at the mar- 
gin, legs clothed with whitish yellow hair, the posterior thighs 
with a thick beard of hair. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



Independent of the differences in the mouth, Colletes may 
be instantly known from the two genera whicli it most resem- 
bles externally, Andrena and Halidus, by the equal propor- 
tions of the 2nd and 3rd siibmarginal cells, one of which is 
small in the former, and by those cells receiving recurrent 
nerves, which is not the case in the latter. 

We have 3 or 4 species of Colletes in Britain; viz. 1. suc- 
cinda Linn. 2. fodiens Kirby. 3. Daviesana Kirby's MSS. 
and a species in my cabinet, which appears to be very different 
from the foregoing. 

The males of C. fodiens I took upon the elevated cliffs at 
Christchurch, Hampshire, that are covered with heath, about 
the middle of August ; and a few days after I met with the fe- 
males in abundance flying about the western side of a bank 
upon Parley Heath in the same county, but saw no males. 
Although this species has been figured in Monographia Apum 
Anglice^ the beautiful state of the females that I took has in- 
duced me to give one as an example of the genus. I can 
scarcely think that the insects figured by Panzer, fasc. 105. 
w. 21 & 22, can be the Melittafodie7is of Kirby; they are too 
black, the scutella are pale, and the female wants the light spots 
upon the basal segment of the abdomen. 

We are indebted to Reaumur for a knowledge of the eco- 
nomy of these bees, and it is a little singular that no one ap- 
pears since his time to have been able to discover their nests, 
which they form amongst the earth that fills up the spaces of 
some stone walls ; they are cylindrical, and composed of many 
cells of different lengths, placed in a horizontal line, each cell 
being formed like a thimble and fitted to the next : sometimes, 
however, when a stone obstructs their course, the line becomes 
irregular. The cells have alternate transverse bands of two 
or more colours; the shorter ones at their junction are white, 
the longer ones enveloping the body are reddish brown. 
These cells are constructed of many layers lying one over the 
other ; and although their contexture is close, they are very 
transparent, in conse(|uence of their extreme thinness, — suffi- 
ciently so to discover the colour of the substances contained 
in them, which causes the variegated line above described. 

The plant figured is Campanula glomcrata (Clustered Bell- 
flower). 



i 



56/ 





>yu^.^<i/,6/,'Ui^C/uy. /./dif 



367. 
DASYPODA SWAMMERDAMELLA. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Andrenidae. 

Type of the Genus, Melitta Swamraerdamella, Kirbij. 

Dasypoda Lat., Fab., Sam., Curt. — Trachusa Jur. — Melitta Kirb. 
— Andrena Rossi. — Apis Fab. 

Anienncs inserted near the middle of the face, rather remote, 
filiform, as long as the thorax and 13-jointed in the male (1), 
basal joint long and pilose, 2nd globose, 3rd obovate, scarcely 
longer than the remainder, which are oblong and truncated ob- 
liquely, terminal joint subovate : geniculated and 12-jointed in 
the female (1*), basal joint the longest and stoutest, clothed with 
long hairs, 2nd subglobose, 3rd long, slender at the base, the 
remainder subquadrate, terminal joint subovate. 
Labrum transverse, elliptic and convex ; the anterior margin 
ciliated with long and stout bristles (2). 

Mandibles long narrow curved and crossing, deeply notched 
below the apex, forming 2 teeth, pilose externally and internally 
near the base (3). 

Maxillce long and broad, clothed at the base with long ciliated 
hairs, terminal lobe as long as the Palpi, lanceolate, ciliated at 
the apex (4). Palpi long, slender and tapering, 6-jointed, basal 
joint shorter than the 2nd which is the longest, the remainder 
decreasing in length (b). 

Men^MOT long and linear (5). Palpi as long as the maxillary, 

4-jointed, the joints clavate, basal the longest and stoutest, 4th 

the smallest (b). Labium inflexed, tapering, fleshy, as long as 

the Palpi (c). 

Males smaller and more slender than the females. Ocelli 3, nearly in 

a transverse line. Eyes lateral and narrow. Head not broader 

than the Thorax, which is subglobose. Abdomen ovate-conic in the 

males, ovate and depressed in the females and fringed at the apex. 

Wings with 1 marginal and 2 submarginal cells. Tibiae furnished 

with long spurs, very pilose, especially the hinder pair in the female, 

as well as the basal joint of the tarsi in that sex. Tarsi 5-joinfed, 

the basal joints very long especially in the 4 posterior of the males 

and dilated, particularly in the females. Claws bifid at the apex in 

the males. Pulvilli distinct. (8, /ore leg of female.) 



These handsome insects approach considerably in form some 
of the Andrenae, but they are easily distinguished by having 
only two submarginal cells. The sexes diifer so widely, that 
they have been described under various names : the upper 
figure in our plate is the male, and the lower one the female, 
which I shall here describe. 



D.SHammerdaniella Kir. 2. 174- 1 11. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 701. 
Male. A. furfarisequa Paiiz. 55. li. — hirta Fab. 

Black and minutely punctured; the pubescence long, pale 
ochreous or ferruginous ; silvery white and combed down over 
the clvpeus: abdominal segments with the margins fringed 
with pale hairs; nervures ferruginous and piceous: spurs and 
liairs on inside of basal joint of tarsi orange, terminal joint 
and claws ferruginous, the latter tipped black. 

Female. D. hirtipes Fab. — A. plumipes Panz. 46. 16, 
and A. succincta 7-10. 

The pubescence on the crown of the head and thorax ful- 
vous : basal joint of abdomen clothed with pale hairs, the 3 
following ciliated with whitish hairs, slightly interrupted down 
the centre, the 5th joint densely clothed with black hairs ex- 
cept at the base : 4- anterior tibiee and basal joint of tarsi clothed 
with fuscous hairs, orange beneath ; hinder pair with the tibi« 
and basal joint of tarsi perfectly concealed by long orange 
liairs. 

This insect, which I believe is never met with in the North 
of England, I have found at the back of the Isle of Wight, 
flying about and settling on the Hawk's-weed on the top of 
the Cliff" the whole of August; at Frejus in France the 5th of 
July, and on the sand hills at Calais the end of August. Cap- 
tain Blomer sent me specimens from Devonshire, and many 
years since Mr. Kirby used to find them at Barham in Suffolk 
on the flowers of the Ragwort. In his Monograph are the 
following observations : *' In the month of August 1797, I saw 
a female take her flight from a grassy declivity of a southern 
aspect, which was much entangled with roots and shrubs. 
Upon examining this spot more narrowly, I discovered a 
number of small burrows, each of which had a little heap of 
sand, which had been excavated from it, lying before it. In 
some of these burrows I saw our Melitta sitting, with her head 
at tlie mouth, enjoying the sunshine ; at the same time I ob- 
served many other insects flying about the spot. Upon my 
attempting to take them they disappeared, but they soon re- 
turned so their amusement. With some difficulty, I at length 
succeeded in taking one, and it proved to be the male just 
described." 

On the Continent there are several species of our genus, and 
last year I had the pleasure of capturhig both sexes of the 
J), disciucta of Illiger, the A. Visnaga of Rossi. 1 found this 
fine insect in July on the flowers of a Thistle near Frejus, and 
I believe Mons. Marcel de Serres takes it near Montpellier. 

The Plant is Tussilago Fatfara (Colt's-foot). 



iig 





J — ^-ndb^ ■.4^0 ' JC^ '■ 



r 



i 



5 ~ /?^ ^ 

129. 
ANDRENA KIRBII. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Andrenidse Lat.., Leach, 

Type of the Genus Melitta nitida Kirby. 

AxDRENA Fah., Lat., Panz. — Melitta Kirby. — Apis Linn. 

AntenncE inserted near the middle of the face, remote, filiform, 
1 3-jointed in the males, basal joint not so long, 3rd much shorter 
than in the female (fig. 1) — 12-jointed, subclavatein theferoales, 
basal joint long, 2nd short, 3rd long and slender (la). Labrum 
convex pilose, strongly ciliated, anterior margin entire (2). 
Mandibles long linear, especially in the males, slightly curved, 
dilated at the base, bifid at the apex, clothed externally with 
ciliated hairs (3). 

Maxillce rigid, very pilose, terminated by a broad, rather short, 

subovate ciliated lobe bent at its extremity (4 a), having a small 

hairy lobe below the palpus near the internal margin (e). 

Menlum very long, linear, (5 a). Palpi longer than the lip, 4- 

jointed, basal joint long clavate, the remainder decreasing in 

length (b). Lip membranous, trigonate, acute, grooved and hairy 

down the middle (c and 5 * c). Paraglossge or lobes membranous, 

strangulated in the middle, ciliated at the apex (d and 5 * d). 

Males much smaller and more slender than the females. Head as broad 

or broader than the thorax. Eyes lateral, narrow. Ocelli 3 in 

triangle. Thorax subglobose. Scutellum semicircular. Abdomen 

depressed, broad and ovate in the females, and fringed at the apex, 

more lanceolate in the males. Wings pubescent, especially towards 

the extremities, with 1 marginal and 3 submarginal cells, the 2nd 

and 3rd receiving recurrent nervures. Posterior legs of females very 

hairy pollinigerous, with a flocculus at the base of the thighs, the 

tibice and basal joint of tarsus {which is shorter than the tibia) 

furnished with a scopa or brush. Tibiae in the males icith 2 long 

spines at the apex. Tarsi 5 -jointed. Claws bijid. Pul villi distinct ^ 

(8 t hinder leg of male). 



KiRBii Stephens's MSS. J^obis. 

Male unknown. Female dull black, shining. Head minutely and 
closely punctured, face covered with ochraceous hair, eyes and 
antennae beneath brown. Thorax sparingly punctured in the disk 
and covered with short pale ochraceous hairs. Abdomen minutely 
punctured, pubescent especially at the base, the margins of the 
segments being thickly ciliated with pale ochraceous hairs form- 
ing 4 transverse bands, apex clothed with yellowish brown hair. 
Wings stained yellowish, posterior margin fuscous, post-costal 
nervure brown, the others ferruginous. Thighs and tibis clothed 
with pale hair, tarsi ferruginous, the basal joint clothed with pale 
hair, changing with the light to ferruginous. 

In the Cabinet of Mr. Stephens. 



Theue are about 80 British species of this well-known genus, 
of which we have upwards of 50 named in our own cabinet : 
most j)erfect descriptions are given of them in the 2nd vol. of 
the Monographia Apum Anglia; ; the following have been 
tietected and named by Mr. Kirby since the publication of 
his valuable work, viz. Andrcma Hallana, fiilvescejis, albe- 
scens, Spencella, and Yeatella. The reader will also find an 
account of the habits and economy of this group in the 1st 
A'olume, p. 141 of the same work, of which we shall here avail 
ourselves. " The species of this family usually nidificate 
under-ground in a light soil, some choosing grass banks over 
which bushes are scattered, others bare perpendicular sec- 
tions, but all seem to delight in a south aspect. They exca- 
vate cylindrical burrows from five inches to near a foot in 
depth, and of a diameter sufficient only for the Melitta 
[Andrcna) to go in and out at. When they make these holes, 
they remove the earth grain by grain, which forms a small 
hillock near the mouth; they sometimes run in a perpendi- 
cular, and at others in a horizontal direction. The cell at 
the bottom of these burrows they replenish with pollen made 
into a paste with honey, and in this they deposit their eggs. 
The pollen they carry not only upon the scopa of their pos- 
terior tibiae, but also upon their flocculus, and the hairs of their 
metathorax." — The student will be well rewarded in collecting, 
by visiting the Sallows when in flower as early as April ; and 
as the males and females are exceedingly different, he should 
take care to discover if possible the sexes, — many species are 
attached at later periods to syngenesious and other flowers. 

The rare insect figured was in the collection of the late 
Mr. M. Griffin of Norwich, and was probably taken in the 
neighbourhood of that city : it now enriches the cabinet of 
Mr. Stephens, with whom I unite most cordially in naming it 
after the gentleman to whom we are so greatly indebted for 
our perfect knowledge of this interesting family. 

I feel great pleasure also in introducing a drawing of Mes- 
pilus Cotoneastey\ which I am enabled to do through the kmd- 
ness of my friend Professor Henslow, who has obligingly com- 
municated specimens, and the following account from W. 
Wilson, Esq. of Warrington, Lancashire, who discovered 
it last year in Wales. " The surface of the Orme's head is 
broken into cliffs and ledges, and upon these cliffs the Mespilus 
grows. It is most abundant within half a mile of the village 
ot Llandidus, but occurs, though much more sparingly, in 
other parts; and I have seen it at the N.W. extremity of the 
head. It is indisputably indigenous. The Orme's head con- 
sists of limestone." 



44^ 




448. 
LASIOGLOSSUM TRICINGULUM. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Andrenidae. 

Type of the Genus, Lasioglossum tricingulum Curt. 

Lasioglossum Curt. Guide, Gen. 704*. 

Antenna of the male inserted near the centre of the face, longer 
than the head and thorax, slightly fusiform, composed of 13 
joints very similar to Halictus. 

Labrum transverse-ovate, sides straight, angles rounded and 
slightly emarginate, anterior margin convex and ciliated with 
long hairs, broadest at the base (2). 

Mandibles not so much dilated at the base as in Halictus. 
MaxillcE very slender, lobe as long as the Paraglossse, lanceolate, 
not notched towards the apex. Palpi one third longer than the 
lobe, 6-jointed (4). 

Mentum long and very slender. Labium rather long lanceolate 

and very pubescent on the sides and at the back (5 c) : Para- 

glossce half the length of the lip, lanceolate and slightly ciliated 

(d). Palpi longer than the paraglossae, but shorter than the 

lip, 4-jointed (b). 

Head ovate, depressed and porrected nearly horizontally : eyes long 

narroio and lateral : ocelli 3. Thorax globose, a little larger than 

the head. Abdomen ovate and convex, considerably broader than the 

thorax. Wings ample, the cells similar to Halictus, as well as the 

legs. 

Tricingulum Curt. MSS. 

Male black, shining and pubescent, exceedingly minutely and 
thickly punctured and clothed with soft ochreous hairs : abdo- 
men with a whitish fascia, narrowest at the middle, at the base 
of the 2nd 3rd and 4th segments, the 5th segment slightly grey 
with pubescence, the apex ochreous : wings iridescent, the pos- 
terior margin slightly fuscous ; stigma ochreous, nervures pale 
brown : posterior tibiae ochreous, and tarsi, excepting the 1st 
pair, whitish ochre, tipped with ferruginous. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



This singular and I believe nondescript species appears to 
form a beautiful connexion between the Andrenidae and Apidae, 
but unfortunately the female is unknown. I took 3 males at 
Ventnor in the Isle of Wight, flying about flowers near the 
sea-shore, the 12th September 1826, and one of them was Sty- 
lopsed ; they look very long on the wing, in consequence of 
the head, antennae, and bodies being carried horizontally. 
Those parts that I have not described or but slightly, are si- 
milar to Halictus, which I shall now illustrate. 



HALICTUS. 

Type of the Genus, Melitta rubicunda Kirby. 
Halictus Lat., Curt. Guide, Gen. 704. — Andrena Panz. — Hylaeus, 
Megilla, & Anthophora Fab. — Melitta Kirby. 
Antennee inserted near the middle of the face, long filiform and 
13-jointed in the males (1 S) 5 basal joint the longest and clothed 
with long feathery hairs, 2nd cup-shaped, 3rd semiovate, 4th 
stouter and oblong, the remainder slightly decreasing in length 
and becoming very ovate or convex on the underside, terminal 
joint rounded at the apex : shorter and geniculated in the fe- 
males (19), pubescent and 12-jointed, basal joint very long, 
clavate and pilose externally towards the base, 2nd small obo- 
vate, 3rd a little broader, the remainder stouter and subquadrate, 
terminal joint subovate. 

Labruni short, transverse and convex in the males (2), the sides 
rounded, ciUated before with long flat hairs : producing a sub- 
lanceolate lobe in front, ciliated with long hairs dilated at the 
base in xhe females (2). 

Mandibles rather slender in the males (3), sublanceolate, curved 
and crossing, produced inside at the base, externally pilose : 
sublinear in the females (3), hollowed inside, truncated obliquely 
at the apex and notched, externally pilose. 
Maxillee alike in both sexes (4), very long, terminated by a 
small bent lobe, subovate with a notch on the inside and ciliated 
with longish hairs. Palpi (b) twice as long as the lobe, slender 
and slightly attenuated, 6-jointed, the 3 basal joints shorter 
than the following. 

Mentum ahke in both sexes, long and linear (5). Lip short ovate- 
conic, being pointed and pubescent at the apex (c). Paraglossee 
as long as the lip, subeUiptical, rounded at the apex and ciliated 
{d). Palpi nearly twice as long as the lip, slender, attenuated 
and 4 -jointed, basal joint the longest and stoutest, 3 following 
short and of equal length {b) . 
Males smaller and slenderer than the females. Head orbicular, depressed: 
eyes long and ovate: ocelli 3. Thorax globose. Abdomen ellip- 
tical in the males (6(5); ovate conic in the females, with a groove on 
the back at the apex (6$). Wings; superior with one marginal 
and 3 submarginal cells, the central cell the smallest. Tibiae, with 
long spines or spurs, posterior robust in the female : tarsi 5 -jointed, 
basal joint long and stout in the females, the others minute. Claws 
bifid in both sexes. 

The remarkable elliptical impression on the back of the penul- 
timate segment of the abdomen distinguishes the female Halicti 
from all other Bees, and the head of the male is narrower and 
more elongated than in Andrena, and the 3rd joint of the an- 
tennae is not much larger than the 2nd. The Paraglossae were 
entire at the apex in the Halicti that I dissected, but Mr. 
Kirby has represented them as lacerated at the apex. 

This genus contains 29 British species, for the names of 
which the student is referred to the ' Guide'. It is singular that 
not one of them appears to have been described by Linnaeus. 

The Plant is Plantago lanceolata {Rlhwon Plantain). 



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101. 
PANURGUS URSINUS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apiariae hat. Apidae LeacJi. 

Type of the Genus Andrena lobata Panz. 

Panurgus Panz., Lat., Leach. Apis Gmel., Kirby. Dasypoda Fab. 
Andrena Panz. Trachusa Jur., Panz. 

Antennce approxrimating, inserted between the eyes, distinctly 
articulated, clavate in both sexes ; 13-jointed in the males, basal 
joint long cylindric, hairy, 2nd small, 3rd cup-shaped, remainder 
pubescent, increasing in diameter to the last, which is conical (1 ) : 
12-jointed in the females, basal joint less hairy than in the 
males (la). 

Labrum transverse-oval, narrowed at the base, cilia long and 
soft (2). 

Mandibles long, bent, slender, acute, rough and slightly pilose, 
not dentated (3). 

Maxillce long, terminated by a pubescent and pilose lanceolate 
lobe (4 a). 

Palpi shorter than the maxillae, slender, 6-jointed, basal joint 
small, following longer, decreasing in length to the last, which is 
as long as the 2nd (b), 

Mentum elongate-conic, apex tridentate (5 a). Palpi long 
slender, coriaceous membranaceous at their articulations, slightly 
hairy, 4-jointed, 1st joint long, clavate, the following decreasing 
in length to the end (b). Tongue lanceolate pubescent, scarcely 
so long as the palpi, with an acute lobe on each side at the base (c). 
Head broader than the thorax in the males. Ocelli 3 in triangle. Ab- 
domen with the incisures slightly strangulated, somewhat conical and 
terminated by 2 lobes in the males; ovate more depressed, bearded 
and aculeated in the females. Superior wings with 2 marginal cells, 
one very small, and 3 submarginal cells, the external one scarcely 
complete, and the middle one receiving 2 recurrent nerves. Hinder 
feet pollinigerous. Tibiae, posterior dilated towards the apex, very 
hairy in the females (8 a). Tarsi 5 -jointed, 1st joint very long, 
broad, and hairy, especially in the females, the remainder small, pu- 
bescent only. Claws unidentate (8 a is the hinder leg, and 1 a the 
antenna of the female P. ursinus). 



Ursinus Gmel. Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 2790. n. 173. Kirby Mon. Ap. 
Angl. V. 2. p. 178. n. \.fem. — and Banksiana, p. 179. n. 3. mas. 
Male black, shining, hirsute. Wings pale fuscous ; costa, stigma 
and squamulse brown ; nerves, lobes of abdomen and tarsi ferru- 
ginous. Tibiae clothed with ochraceous hairs. — Female less ro- 
bust than the male, apex of abdomen tufted with brown Jiairs, 
posterior tibiae and basal joint of tarsus thickly covered with long 
fulvous hair. — Obs. Most of the soft pubescence is ciliated, as 
shown at the base of the maxilla (fig. 4). 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



^ 



The uniformity that prevails in the structure of these bees, 
especially in the similarity of the palpi and the antennae of the 
sexes, renders it easy to distinguish them from the other Ajridce, 
and nothin'>- can be more natural, I think, than the situation 
assio-ned to them by Mr. Kirby, for in habit they so much 
resemble Dasi/poda, that Fabricius (who must have judged in 
this instance from analogy and not from dissection, as the 
mouth assumes the more developed form of the Ajndce) had 
included them in his last work in that genus ; and on the other 
side they approach very near to Nomada, in the form of the 
palpi and other parts of the organs of manducation. 

We have but 2 species of this genus ; for as Apis ursina, 
and A. BanksiaJia of Kirby are constantly found together, the 
former beinjj all females and the latter all males, it cannot be 
doubted that they are one species. 

1. Panurgus ursinus, Mr. Kirby took upon a heath in Suffolk, 

in September, and in the middle of June I captured 
several of both sexes upon a sunny bank near 
Shooter's Hill. The female having been figured in 
the Moil. Ap. Angl. tab. 16. f. 1., 1 have preferred 
giving the male, being in doubt about Panzer's figure 
of Trachusa atra^fasc. 96. pi. 19. all the tibiae being 
destitute of the fulvous pubescence. 

2. P. lobata Panz. Both sexes of this rare insect are well 

figured in his Fawi. Ins. Germ. fasc. 96. 18. male, 
and 72. 16. female. Having received specimens 
from Germany, and Mr. Stephens having allowed 
me to compare his specimen, which was the one in 
the late Mr. Marsham's collection, referred to by 
Mr. Kirby, there can be no doubt of their being the 
same species, although the figure in the Mon. Ap. 
Angl. tab. 16. f. 2. does not show the spines on the 
posterior thighs, as exhibited in our plate (fig. 8f ), 
which are quite concealed, except when the legs are 
spread out ; a proof of the utility of setting insects 
well when firat taken, or of relaxing them after- 
wards, as recommended by Mr. Samouelle in his 
Useful Compendium, p. 321. 
The female of P. lobata I have never seen ; the males have 
been taken in September upon Martlesham Heath, near 
Woodbridge, Suffolk, by Mr. Kirby, whose specific name 
would most willingly have been adopted, had not Panzer pub- 
lished his previously. Latreille observes, that our bee is fond 
of semidosculous flowers ; we have consequently figured Ci- 
neraria integrifolia (Mountain Fleawort), communicated by 
Professor Henslow from the Gogmagog Hills. 



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628. 
CHELOSTOMA FLORISOMNIS. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apidge. 

Type of the Genus, Apis florisomnis Linn. 

Chelostoma Lat., Curt. — Megachile Lat. — Trachusa Jur. — Hylseus 
Fab. — Anthophora Fab. — Anthidium Panz. — Apis Linn., Kirb. 
Antenn(BmsQvte& in front of the face, considerably longer tlian the 
head, filiform and 13-jointed in the male (1 ^), basal joint long 
stout and hairy, 2nd the smallest, the following joints oblong 
and angulated intemall)", giving them the appearance of a 
twisted rope, the apical joint oval : short and clavate in the 
female (1 ? ), the 2nd joint longer than the 3rd, 4th and fol- 
lowing cup-shaped and gradually increasing in diameter, apical 
joint ovate-conic. 

Labrum oblong, attenuated anteriorly, ciliated and truncated 
(2 (J), t^vice as long in the female and more attenuated (2 $ ). 
Mandibles bifid at the apex, short and externally hairy in the 
male (3), long curved and porrected in the female and very 
pilose internally. 

Maxilla, stipes elongated (4), terminated by a long inflected 
membranous lobe, lanceolate and very acute. Palpi yery small, 
composed of 3 ovate joints. 

Mentum elongated, elliptic, biemarginate before (5). Tongue 
long slender and linear (c). Palpi rather longer, slender, at- 
tenuated, compressed, attached to short broad scapes, 4-jointed, 
basal joint oblong, 2nd very long, membranous, thickened at 
the inner edge, 3rd short and slender, a little pubescent at the 
apex, 4th the same length, attached obliquely, a little clavate- 
truncate {b). 
Head rather small in the male, the cheeks forming an obtuse tooth by 
the base of the mandibles ; large and more quadrate in the female : 
eyes lateral, elongate-ovate : ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown. 
Thorax ovate, especially in the female. Abdomen linear in the 
male (Jo ^), very much incurved, with a trigonate protxiberance be- 
neath near the base, a ciliated cavity under the 4th segment, the 
apex bidentate (7) with a recurved bifid process in the centre : ellip- 
tic in the female, narrowed towards the base, the underside densely 
hairy (6 $ ). Wings with 1 marginal and 2 submarginal cells, the 
2nd receiving 2 recurrent nervures. Legs neither long nor stout .- 
tibiae rather short and stout : tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint very long 
in the hinder pair, rather stout and densely pilose inside in the fe- 
male : claws short broad and cleft in the males, acute in the females, 

Florisomnis Z-mw. ^ . — maxillosus izwre. ? . — Curt. Guide, Gen. 709. 
Black, shining, thickly and minutely punctured, slightly clothed 
with ochreous down, hinder margin of wings brown, ner\Tires 
piceous : male with the face densely clothed with soft yellow 
hairs, abdominal segments fringed with whitish hairs on the 
sides, underside of 4th segment ochreous : female with the in- 
ternal margin of the mandibles ciliated with ferruginous hairs 
as well as the hinder tarsi ; underside of abdomen clothed with 
ochreous hairs, the segments neatly margined with white above, 
interrupted down the back. 



Since Mr. Kirby wrote his able Monograph, his suspicions 
have been confirmed relative to the sexes of this bee having 
been described by Linnaeus under two names, yet the fact of 
Mr. Shuckard having seen the female Clielostoma paired with 
an Osviia, shows how difficult it is to ascertain the sexes of in- 
sects, and how cautious we ought to be in deciding on such 
questions. 

It is said that the idle males of this singular bee sleep away 
a great portion of their time in the bosom of some pretty flower, 
whilst the female labours hard with her mandibles to form cells 
several inches in length in posts and rails, where she deposits 
her eggs, supplies them with pollen, and then dies. By the 
following extract from a letter written by the Rev. R. Albion 
Cox to Mr. Dale, it is evident that they sometimes save them- 
selves the labour of excavation by employing the stubble of 
wheat for their nests, a remarkable departure from their usual 
ceconomy which has not been hitherto noticed. " The habits 
of this species (says Mr. Cox) are singular, the reed-motes 
contain their nests. On splitting a portion from one you will 
find a most ingenious arrangement for the support of the in- 
fant progeny. First a store of pollen, then an egg or grub, 
and lastly a small pellet of earth or stone, and so on in a se- 
ries from the joint to the end of the straw, which is carefully 
sealed. The pellet is placed in the position described, evi- 
dently for the purpose of intercepting the progress of the larva 
in that direction, lest he should infringe upon the rights of his 
next-door neighbour. If you should chance to meet with a 
straw whose inmates are in a more advanced stage, you will 
find the pupa inclosed in a silken shroud at the end opposite 
to his original position, and behind him the rejectamenta of 
his banquet. Whatever may be the diameter of the straw, the 
quantity of food appears to be precisely the same; whence it 
happens that the deposits differ in length, proportionably to 
the size of the cylinder which contains them." Mr. Cox adds, 
" Mr. Paulett Mildmay first pointed out the ingenuity of the 
contrivance." 

Mr. 11. Bakewell, of Nottingham, also informs me that the 
females o( Sapi/ga clavicornis (pi. 532.) enter the holes of Clie- 
lostoma^ and are always to be found about posts where that 
bee nidificates, but the male Sapj/ga is very rare and difficult 
to capture. 

The Ichneumon manifestator, Fccnus jaculator (fol. 4-23.), 
Ichneumon femorator^ Kirb., and Chrysis cijanea are recorded 
also as parasites on the larvae o'i Chelostoma. 

For the pretty plant, Exacum fliforme. Least Gentianella, 
I am mdebted to the Hon. C. A. Harris. 



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504. 
HERIADES TRUNCORUM. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam, Apidae. 

Type of the Genus, Apis Campanularum Linn. 
Heriades Spin., Lat., Curt. — Anthophora Fab. — Anthidium Panz. — 
Trachusa Jur. — Megachile Lat. — Apis Linn., Kirb. 
AntenncB inserted in the middle of the face, scarcely longer than 
the head, velvety, 13-jointed in the male (1), basal joint the 
longest and subovate, pilose above, 2nd joint small, subovate, 
3rd not larger cup-shaped, 4th transverse, the remainder in- 
creasing in length to the apical joint which is ovate ; shorter 
and clavate in the female (1 $ ), 3rd joint the smallest, ovate- 
truncate, the remainder transverse and gradually increasing in 
diameter to the apical joint which is large and ovate. 
Labrum alike in both sexes, oblong, a little dilated at the base, 
the margin ciliated (2). 

Mandibles elongate-trigonate, bifid in the male (3) ; larger with 
one trifid in the female (3 $ ), having long silky hairs on the 
inside. 

Maxilla terminated by a long broad lanceolate lobe (4). Palpi 
very short, biarticulate, basal joint a little the longest and clavate, 
2nd ovate (b). 

Mentum subelliptical, subtrifid before (5). Lip long, slender, 
linear, pilose and transversely striated (c). Paraglossa short 
and lanceolate in the female (5 ? c/). Palpi a little longer than 
the lip, 3-jointed, basal joint short and ovate, 2nd very long and 
attenuated, 3rd as long as the 1st, attached outside near the 
apex of the 2nd, slender and clavate {b). 
Head orbicular and large in the male : eyes lateral, oval : ocelli large, 
3 in triangle on the crown. Thorax not larger than the head, glo- 
bose. Abdomen narrow, cylindric, elongate-ovate, incurved, with a 
tubercle on the underside of the 2nd joint in the male (6), the ante- 
penultimate fringed with hair, the apex furcate (a) ; thickly clothed 
with hairs beneath in the female (6$). Wings, superior with one 
elongate-ovate marginal cell, 2 perfect submarginal ones, the 2nd 
receiving 2 recurrent nervures, and 3 discoidal cells. Legs simple 
similar in both sexes : thighs neai'ly naked : tibite short, posterior 
the longest, anterior with a spine at the apex, the others with 2 ; tarsi 
5-jointed, basal joint the longest, especially in the hinder pair, in 
tvhich it is also the stoutest and pubescent on the inside. Claws bifd 
in the male. 

Truncorum Linn. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 710. 2. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Kirby and the Author. 



Heriades is distinjruished from the other Apidae by its labial 
palpi, which are only triarticulate, and the basal joint is very 
short. The Paraglossoe are also short, and I could not discover 
any in the male. 

There are two species inhabitants of this country, and they 
are supposed to nidificate in posts, rails, holes in old trees, &.c. 



1 . H. Campamilarum Khb. Mon. jo/. 16./ 14 & 1 5. 9 & c? • 
SliiiHn<^, thickly and minutely punctured, and sparingly 
clothed with minute ochreous pubescence; the face and espe- 
cially the clypeus producing long ochreous hairs in the male, 
and the margin and underside ot" the abdomen in that sex, ex- 
cept at the base, are thinly covered with yellowish hairs, but in 
the female they are long and thick; wings fuscous round the 
margins, the nervuresand stigma piceous; spurs ochreous, the 
basal joint of tarsi producing long whitish hairs in the female, 
especially the intermediate, inside of the same joint in the pos- 
terior clothed with bright ferruginous hairs ; claws subfer- 
ruginous. 

" This little Apis," (says Mr. Kirb}^,) "by far the most mi- 
nute species of this genus that I have yet seen, is common, 
durino; the summer and autumnal months, in the blossoms of 
Campanula Trachelium, rotundifolia and hyhrida, and what 
deserves to be remarked, I never found it in the flowers of any 
other genus of plants. The males are often taken asleep in 
these flowers ; their abdomen is then doubled, so tliat the tu- 
bercle, with which its base is armed, fits into the cavitv near 
the anus." On the 29th of June I once found it in abundance 
in a garden at Fulham. 
2. 11. truncorum Linn. — P«?iz.64'.15. — Curt.B.E.pl. 504 ? . 

Female slate-black, slightly pubescent with whitish hairs, 
and closely covered with strong punctures, especially the head 
and thorax, a spot of long white hairs on each side the clypeus, 
sides of thorax similarly clothed. Abdomen concave at the 
base, with a transverse ridge and another at the base of the 2nd 
segment, the anterior margin of the 1st clothed at the sides 
with white pubescence, sometimes extending across, the 3 fol- 
lowing segments ciliated with white hairs, forming very narrow 
bands, the pubescence at the apex very short and ochreous, the 
pubescence beneath as well as on the basal joint of the hinder 
tarsi ferruginous ochre: wings tinged with brown, especially 
across the middle; nervures and stigma piceous, spurs ochre- 
ous, tips of tarsi and claws ferruginous. " Male smaller: cheeks 
unarmed : maxillae not carinated above : abdomen with the 
margins of the anterior segments whitish: anus inflexed, last 
segment entire, somewhat compressed with a little transverse 
fovea on each side: belly with white hairs at the base, convex, 
with a tolerably deep cavity at the apex." — Kirhy. 

As I have never seen the male, the above description is 
translated from Mr. Kirby's Monograph : the female very 
much resembles the same sex of Osmia leiicomelana, but is 
rather more slender; the head is proportionably larger; it is 
more strongly punctured, and the hollow space above at the 
base of the 1st abdominal segment at once distinguishes it. 

Taken at Brentford : 1 believe my female came iVom Norfolk. 

The Plant is Campanula (Prismatocarpus LI Her ) hylrida. 
Corn Bell-flower. 




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Gl. 
ANTHIDIUM MANICATUM. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apiarife Lat. Apidae Leacli. 

Ttjpe of the Genus Apis manicata Linn. 

AxTHiDiUM Fab., Lat. Apis Linn , Kirby. Trachusa Jur. 

Antennce inserted near the middle of the face, remote, filiform, 
of nearly equal length in both sexes, 13-jointed in the male, 
12-iointed in the female, 1st joint elongated, hairy, 2nd very 
short (1, antenna of male). 

Lahrum inclosed beneath the mandibles, elongate, quadrate^ 
coriaceous, entire, ciliated, a little dilated at its base (2). 
Mandibles exserted, strong, broad, acute, multidentate (3). 
Maxilla long, coriaceous, horny down the centre, terminal lobe 
lanceolate, acute, inflexed, external edge ciliated (4 a) : Palpi 
short, of one joint, ovate, attenuated, pilose (4 b with the pal- 
pus magnified). 

Mentum elongated, linear (5 a) : Palpi setiform, 4-jointed, 
1st and 2nd elongated, compressed, of equal length, with mem- 
branaceous edges, 3rd and 4th short, the former arising from the 
side near the apex of the 2nd which is terminated by a few bristles 
(5 b, b, showing the 3rd and 4th joints greatly magnified) : Lip 
often reflexed, as long as the 2 first joints of the palpi slender, 
linear, suddenly contracted towards the apex (o c). 
Head nearly as broad as the thorax. Ocelli 3. Scutellum with the 
posterior margin produced, rounded, subemarginate. Abdomen in- 
curved, convex above, broadly truncate at the base, apex of the males 
armed with spines ; underside in the females very hairy, armed with 
a sting (G abdomen of female). Superior wings with 1 marginal, 
2 submarginal and 3 discoidal cells ; posterior limb ivithout nerves. 
Hinder feet pollinigerous. Tibiae short, hainj. Tarsi very hairy, 
5-jointed, ]st joint compressed, quadrate, long, robust, 3 following 
short, terminal joint long, slender, the \st joint of the hinder tarsi 
gradually narrowing from the base to the apex. Claws unindentate 
(8 afore leg), harvss pollinivorous. 



Manicatum Linn. Syst. Nat. 2. 958. 28. Fab. Ent. Syst. t. 2. p. 330. 
n. 73. Kirby's Mon. Ap. Ang. ** c. 2. ^.v. \. p.\7\.v.2. p. 248. 
Male piceous black, punctured, villose, hairs gray or inclining to 
ferruginous. Clypeus and mandibles yellow, the former black 
towards the base, the latter at the apex. Wings fuscous. Ab- 
domen with fascicles of orange hairs and a yellow spot on each 
side the 4 first segments, the 5th with 4 yellow spots, 6th with 
lunar spots towards the centre and a curved spine on each side : 
last segment with 3 spines the centre one being the smallest. 
Legs black, very villose, 4 anterior tibige yellow at the apex. 
Tarsi yellowish brown. — Female smaller less villose than the 
male, hairs ferruginous, orange upon the tarsi and beneath the 
abdomen, which has no spines and instead of the fascicles it is 
ciliated on the sides of the abdomen. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



No family of insects has excited greater interest, been better 
investigated, or more clearly iniderstood than the bees, — cir- 
cumstances arising no less from tlieir wonderful economy and 
beautiful organization, than from the labours of some of the 
species supplying us with the luxuries and necessaries of life ; 
at once affording both instruction and amusement to the na- 
turalist, and speculation and profit to the merchant. 

Whilst war like a frost (if I may be allowed the expression) 
locked up the streams of knowledge that during the suc- 
ceedino- peace flowed in kindly harmony to instruct and benefit 
mankind, two of the most illustrious entomologists of the age 
were (unknown to each other) investigating the same subject; 
and it is delightful to see how those who take nature and truth 
for their guides arrive at the same conclusions, although some- 
times led by different ways. The most perfect production 
that ever appeared in this country was at that time given to 
the world from the pen of Mr. Kirby, a work which it is far 
more easy for me to admire than to praise as it demands : in 
that work the student has a noble example of a monograph ; 
his mind is directed " to look through Nature up to Nature's 
God ;" and so complete is the mass of scientific information, 
that little appears left to be done by future writers. At the 
same time Mons. Latreille was employed in arranging the 
family, including the exotic genera, and naming the groups, 
which first appeared in his ^^ HiUoire Naturelle" vol. 3.; 
and in his subsequent works, the " Genera Crustnceornm" and 
" Considerations Generales" this admirable undertaking was 
perfected. With these advantages over every other family of 
British insects, it is no wonder that the Apidce should become 
the favourites of the entomologist ; I confess they are so with 
me, and I anticipate much pleasure in the illustration of them. 
The genus now selected is extremely interesting in its habits 
of life; tor a detailed account of which I must refer to Kirby's 
" Monographia Apum Anglia" remarking that it is the only 
species of die genus found in this country. It is by no means 
a rare insect in the neighbourhood of London. In the months 
of July and August 1823 Dr. Stephenson took it in great 
abundance in lanes at South Lambeth and Chelsea : I am in- 
formed by him that it occurs chiefly on dry sandy weedy 
banks ; and like most insects of this tribe, it may be taken on 
the wing during the whole of the day when the weather is 
fine, occasionally settling on various plants, especially those 
that are covered widi short woolly hair or down, the Stachys 
sylvatica (PI. Q5.\ Glcchoma hederacea, &c., the tomentum of 
which it strips off' for the purposes of nidification, forming its 
nest in hollow trees and odier situations. 

Mr. Kirby having observed it to frequent the Agrostcmvia 
Coronaria (an Italian Plant), I have figured an English spe- 
cies of the same genus, A. Githago (Corn Cockle). 



222. 

OSMIA PARIETINA. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apiariae Lat. Apidae Leach. 

Type of the Genus Apis bicornis Linn. 

OsMiA Panz., Spin., Lat., Leach. — Andrena Panz. — Megachile Lat. 
— ^Trachusa Jur. — Hoplitis 8; Amblys Klug. — Anthophora Fab. 
— Apis Linn., Kirby, Panz. 

AntenncB inserted at the middle of the face, not approximating, 
long filiform and 13-jointed in the males, basal joint pilose, 
scarcely longer than the 4th, 2nd minute, 3rd short cup-shaped, 
the remainder of nearly equal length, each being slightly curved, 
terminal joint attenuated (la): shorter geniculated cylindric, 
and subclavate in the females, composed of 12 joints, basal joint 
pilose very long, 2nd minute, 3rd longer and more slender than 
the following, vv'hich are quadrate, excepting the last which is 
longer and rounded at the apex (I). 

Labrum elongate-quadrate, dilated at the base, rounded and 
slightly emarginate and ciliated at the apex (2). 
Mandibles externally pilose, small and deeply notched at the 
apex in the males (3 a) ; large elongate-quadrate, truncated 
obliquely and sinuated at the apex in the females (3). 
Maxillce as long as the lip in the female, horny at the base, ter- 
minated by a long membranous sublanceolate lobe pubescent at 
the inner margin and apex (4 a). Palpi pubescent more robust 
in the female than male, 4-jointed, basal joint the largest, oval, 
2nd and 3rd longer, of equal length, 4th shorter, subclavate (b). 
Mentiim elongated horny. Palpi 4-jointed, basal joint long, 2nd 
twice as long attenuated, 3rd very short clavate-truncate, 4th a 
little longer and slenderer (5 b). Tongue much longer than the 
palpi in the male (c), very pubescent externally, hollow, trans- 
versely striated ; down the centre apparently runs a tube which 
is terminated by an expanded orifice. Paraglossce short, slightly 
pubescent, dilated at the base (d). 
Males smaller than the females. Head very large in the latter sex. 
Ocelli 3. Wings like those of Megachile. Abdomen ovate, convex, 
thickly pubescent beneath in the female. Tarsi 5 -jointed, basal joint 
the longest and most robust, especially in the female, 3 following 
short, 5 th longer. Claws deeply bifid in the males. (8 fore leg of 
the female). 

Parietina Nob. 

Female. Dull aeneous green ; head and thorax thickly and mi- 
nutely punctured, the former producing hoary, the latter bright 
ferruginous pubescence. Abdomen very glossy, obscurely punc- 
tured, slightly pubescent, ferruginous at the base, underside 
clothed with black pubescence. Wings with a fuscous fimbria. 
Legs producing a little hoary pubescence, that of the tarsi fuscous. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



I HAVE the satisfaction of again referring my readers to the 
followino- works for the histories and descriptions of these 
bees, viz. Reaumur, torn. 6, Mem. 3; and the Monographia 
Apwn Anglia^ vol. 1. p. 178, and vol. 2. p. 260, from whence 
we learn that they build their nests upon the uneven surface of 
walls, and construct their cells of mud which has caused them 
to be called Mason-bees. Although Osmia is nearly related 
to Megachile, there are considerable differences in the trophi, 
the most important of which is the 4-jointed maxillary palpus ; 
and there are external characters, such as the longer antenn£e 
and more woolly bodies of the males, and the more ovate and 
convex bodies of the females, which will be found useful to 
distinguish them. 

In addition to those described by Mr. Kirby, I have had 
the good fortune to discovei* two others which appear to be 
nondescripts. The genus may be arranged in the following 
order : 

1. O. hirta Foiirc. — Leaiana Kirhy. August and beginning 

of Sept. Thistles, Suffolk, and Isle of Wight. 

2. spinulosa A7rZ>j/, /aZ). 17. y^ 1 &2. August. Sand and 

chalk pits near Ipswich, Suffolk. 

3. leucomelana Kirhy. Amongst pines, and on flowers of 

Dandelion : Suffolk. July and August : upon Cen- 
taurea, and under the cliffs at Dover. 
4!. caerulescens Linn.^ Panz. 65. 18. Jem. — aenea Panz. 
56, 3, masc. July ; in chalky and sandy places. 

5. parietina Curtis Brit. Ent. pi. 9,22. f cm. Beginning of 

June ; flying about walls near Ambleside. 
With the male of this bee I am unacquainted ; the female 
resembles in size and colour the same sex of O. hirta, but the 
pubescence of the thorax is ferruginous, and the hair with 
which the underside of the abdomen is clothed is black. 

6. Tunensis Fah. — aurulenta Panz. 63. 22. fem. July; 

on clayey banks. 

7. bicolor Schr. — fusca Panz. 56. W. fern. — haematoda 

Panz. 81 . 20. masc. P End of June ; Darent Wood. 
July ; gardens and sunny banks. 

8. atricapilla Nob. — I have only a female of this insect 

taken by myself; it is black, the thorax and base of 
abdomen fulvous. 

9. bicornis Limi. — fronticornis Panz. 63. 20. Jem. var. — rufa 

Pa7iz. 56. 10. 7nasc. — cornuta Lat. March, April, 
May ; sandy places. The males are plentiful upon 
paling at Hampstead, Battersea, and other places 
near London, and also upon flowers. 
The plant is Salvia vcrbcmaca (Wild Clary). 



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218. 
MEGACHILE WILLUGHBIELLA. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apiariae Lat. Apidae Leach. 

Type of the Genus Apis centuncularis Linn. 
Megachile Lat., Leach. — Trachusa Jur. — Xylocopa, Centris, Antho- 
phora Fab., Panz. — Phyllotoma Dum. — Apis Linn., Kirby, Panz. 
AnienncE inserted at the middle of the face, rather remote, fili- 
form, slightly geniculated; 13-jointed in the male, basal joint 
long, 2nd minute, 3rd small and slender, the 9 following of equal 
length, oblong cylindric, last joint longer wedge-shaped (I) : 
shorter and 12-jointed in the female. 

Labrum inflected large, elongate-quadrate, a little dilated at the 
base, convex, rough, pubescent, slightly ciliated (2). 
Mandibles meeting over the proboscis and labrum, convex, bent, 
pilose, quadridentate, the external tooth the largest in some spe- 
cies, sometimes nearly wanting in the males (3), 
Maxilla long, terminal lobe with a rib at the back, long, lan- 
ceolate, acute, inflexed, internal edge and apex ciliated (4a). 
Palpi very short, attached to a fixed scape, having the appearance 
of a basal joint, biarticulate, 1 st joint globose, 2nd subovate (4 b). 
Mentum horny elongate linear (5). Palpi larger than the lip 
4-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints compressed, internally membranous, 
pubescent, basal joint long and broad, 2nd much longer, attenu- 
ated and pubescent at the apex, 3rd inserted near the apex of the 
2nd, small obovate, 4th a little longer, subclavate (b). Tongue 
as long as the 2 first joints of the palpi fleshy slender cylindric 
hollow, externally pubescent (c) with a bundle of hairs towards 
the apex in some (c*). Paraglossce very short acuminated.' 
Head broad, almost as large as the thorax. Ocelli 3 in triangle. Abdo- 
men oval and convex in the viales, subtrigonate, depressed above, and 
thickly pubescent beneath, in the females. Wings, superior with 1 
costal, 2 subcostal and 3 discoidal cells, posterior limb without ner- 
vures. Legs robust. Tibiae subtrigonate, short, furnished with a 
bent spine at the apex, the posterior pair having 2. Tarsi longer 
in the male than female, 5-jointed, basal joint the longest and most 
robust, 3 following short, 5th longer. Claws hooked and bifid. 
Fig. ] & 8 are from M. Willughbiella mas. c* from M. ligniseca mas. 



WiLLUGHBiELLA Ray, Kirbifs Mon. Ap. Ang. 2. 233. 41. 

Male. Black, minutely punctured, clothed witli pale sulphur- 
coloured pubescence, especifiUy the face. Antennae with the 
terminal joint compressed ovate, subcapitate (1). Abdomen 
notched at the apex. Anterior thighs produced internally, the 
apex of their tibiae and the tarsi straw colour, the latter palmate, 
basal joint very large and hollow, which with the 3 following are 
united on one side, by a pilose and deeply ciliated membrane (8). 
Female, less pubescent than the male above, the face clothed with 
shorter and darker hairs, the apex of the antennae simple. Abdo- 
men with the segments whitish at their margins, the hairs beneath 
bright ferruginous, black at the apex (6). Anterior feet simple. 

In the Author s and other Cabinets, 



The large mandibles of these Bees have supplied the generic 
appellation of Mcgachile^ which has been retained in justice 
to Mons. Latreille, although Mons. Dumeril's name of Phyl- 
lotoma (Leaf-cutters) is more characteristic. They all form 
their nests either in decaying trees or under ground ; and the 
skill displayed by these little animals in cutting the petals of 
flowers and the leaves of plants to construct their curious cells 
is so wonderful and interesting, that the reader will be highly 
gratified by referring to the following works, which contain 
their histories : namely, Reaumur, torn. 6. Mem. 4; Donovan's 
«' British Insects," vol. 4. p. 3 1 ; Kirby's " Monographia Apum 
Angliae," vol. 1. p. 156. and vol. 2. p. 244; and Kirby and 
Spence's "Introduction to Entomology," vol. 1. p. 438 or 441. 
The following ai*e British species of Megachile : 

1. Willughbiella Ray^ Kirhj, Nob. 

Inhabits the decaying trunks of Willows in low meadows : 
found in July in Suffolk, and on the banks of the Thames, at 
Brentford, Fulham, &c. 

2. centuncularis Linn., Fab.,, Kirby. — Schcef. Icon. 262. f. 6. 7. 

— Harris, Exp. t. 49. f. 2. 
The nests of this Bee are formed in walls and decayed trees; 
the cells are composed of the leaves of roses, the Laburnum 
and Mercurialis annua. They are found in August upon 
Thistles. 

3. Leachella Kirby's MSS. 

The smallest species of the genus, and may be the M. Pa- 
paveris Lat. Specimens are preserved in the British Museum. 

4. maritima Kirby Mon. Ap. Ang. 2. 242. 43. 

Taken near Landguard Fort, on the coast of Suffolk, in 
July. 

5. ligniseca Kirby 2. 24'3. 44. tab. 16. Jl 11. mas. — argentata? 

Panz. 99. 16. mas. — centuncularis Paiiz. 55. 12. Jem. — 
Don. 4f.pl. 120. 
Found in September. It forms its cells of the leaves of roses 
and of elms, in the trunks of this tree and of the oak also. 

6. circumcincta Kirby 2. 246. 45, tab. 16. f. 10. /em. 

This Bee was first discovered by the Rev. Dr. Goodenough 
(the late Lord Bishop of Carlisle), in the month of May, on a 
bank of a southern aspect at Dartford in Kent. I once dug 
some of the centunculi out of a bank on the beautiful domains 
ot Lord Stafford, at Costessey in Norfolk : they were formed 
of rose leaves. 

7. xanthomelana Kirby 2. 246. 46. — parietina? Fourcroy. Ent. 

Par. 11. 4. 

A single specimen was taken by the Rev. W. Kirby in July, 
creeping upon a clay bank at Somersham, near Ipswich, Suffolk. 

The plant figured, Mercurialis annua (Annual Mercury), is 
represented as cut by the M. centuncularis. / 



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349. 
CCELIOXYS VECTIS. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apidas Lai., Leach. 

Type of the Genus, Apis conica Linn. 

CoELioxYS Lat., Lea., Curt. — Anthidium Panz. — Trachusa Jur. — 
Anthophora Fab. — Apis Linn., Kirb. 

AntenncB inserted near the middle of the face, rather remote and 
short; 13-jointed in the male, basal joint the longest, rather 
robust, clothed with fine, long hairs, 2nd small, 3rd rather longer 
and slenderer than the following which are nearly quadrate, the 
apical one subovate (1) ; thicker and 12-jointed in the female, 
basal joint the longest, robust, 2nd smalL 3rd subovate, the re- 
mainder clothed with very short pubescence, oblong, the apical 
joint rounded at the apex (1 *). 

Labrum inflected, oblong, basal angles a little produced, slightly 
pubescent, the anterior margin ciliated (2). 
Mandibles oblong and very hairy, truncated obliquely and trifid(3). 
Maxill(2 as long as the mentum, horny semielliptic (4), termi- 
nated by a very long recurved, lanceolate lobe (a), coriaceous, 
with a thick rib down the middle. Palpi very minute, triarti- 
culate, basal joint the stoutest, apical the slenderest (b). 
Mentum long and narrow, emarginate before, slightly produced 
in the centre (5). Labium hollow, long and slender, terminated 
by a mouth-piece (c). Paraglossce short and obtuse. Palpi 
longer than the labium, 4-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints long and 
flat, the former the shortest, 3rd and 4th forming an angle with 
the 2nd ; the terminal joint rather the shortest (b). 
Head rather large, as broad as the thorax : eyes remote long and narrow: 
ocelli 3 on the crown. Thorax globose. Scutellum producing a 
tooth on each side at the base. Abdomen conical, the apex dentated 
in the male (7) ,• subtrigonate, terminated by 2 horizontal valves, in- 
closing a sting in the female (6). Superior wings with 1 long 
marginal, 2 submarginal and 3 discoidal cells, posterior limb nerve- 
less. Legs nearly alike in both sexes : tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint the 
longest and thickest {especially in the hinder pair of the female). 
Claws bifd at the apex in the male {$) ; simple in the female (8 f). 



Vkctis Curtis' s Guide, Gen. 715. n. 2. 

Male black, clothed with soft yellowish cinereous hairs : head and 
thorax very thickly punctured : abdomen glossy and more finely 
punctured, the margins of the annulalions fringed with white 
beneath ; 5 whitish pubescent pointed spots on each side, the 
basal one the largest, the apical one minute, the apex notched 
triangularly, the lobes broad (7). Female with a humeral tuft 
of cinereous pubescence, the four following joints with spots on 
each side like the male ; rarely continued across : apex obtuse, 
the lower valve scarcely longer than the upper one (6). 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



These bees, with several others, are supposed to be parasitic, 
but nothing I believe is known of their economy. I have fre- 
quently dug them out of the earth, late in the year, in a dead 
state : they were buried very deep, the holes being made on 
the perpendicular side of a cliff, and the galleries ran horizon- 
tally, but whether they were formed by themselves or they had 
merely taken possession of them, I could not ascertain. 

The males of Coelioxys and Anthidium (pi. 61.) are distin- 
guished by the denticulated apex of their abdomens, and the 
cleft and gaping ones of the females are peculiar I believe to 
our genus and to Epeolus. 

I suspect there are several species of this genus in Europe, 
but only two have been discovered in this country. 

1. C. conica Lhm. Panz. 55. 13. mas. — 4-punctata imw. Fab. 

Panz. 59. l.fem. 

Male black, clothed with soft yellowish cinereous hairs; 
head and thorax very thickly and strongly punctured, the 
former sometimes with the pubescence of the face ochreous : 
abdomen more glossy, and finely punctured, and less pubes- 
cent, with a scale on each side at the base fringed with white, 
the margins of the other annulations fringed all round with 
white, excepting down the back where they are interrupted or 
meet in a point; penultimate joint with the angles acuminated, 
the apex notched semicircularly (7*). Female with the basal 
tuft of cinereous pubescence larger, the white fringe very nar- 
row and not interrupted down the back ; apex acute, the lower 
valve twice as long as the upper one (6*). 

Inhabits flowers, and is not uncommon the end of June and 
beginning of July. 

2. C. inermis Kirhy Mon. 2. 229. 38. t. 16. f. 8. mas. 
Black, scutellum unarmed : abdomen of the male linear, 

margins of 4 of the segments white, interrupted above, con- 
tinued beneath : apex with several spines. Kirby. 

This is supposed to be a variety of the former, and was 
taken at Brentford by Mr. J. Trimmer. 

3. C. Vectis Curtis' s Brit. Ent. pi. S'^Q.fem. 

This species is not only twice the size of C. conica, but the 
penultimate joint of the abdomen in the male has not the an- 
gles acuminated, the apex is notched more acutely, yet the 
lobes are more obtuse, and the inferior spines are longer. In 
the female the upper valve is curved, the lower one much 
shorter, straight, and less acuminated. 

I took several the beginning of August, on flowers near 
Ventnor, and, flying about heath and pathways, at Black-gang 
Chine in the Isle of Wight. 

The plant is Arenaria media Linn,, marina Fl. Dan. (Sea 
Sj)urrey Sandwort). 



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516. 
EPEOLUS VARIEGATUS. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apidae. 

Type of the Genus, Apis variegata Linn. 
Epeolus Lat., Fab., Curt. — Apisl/zww., Kirb. — Nomacla Fab., Panz. 
Antennce inserted at the middle of the face, nearly alike in both 
sexes, rather long, stout and velvety, 13-jointed in the male, 
12-jointed in the female, basal joint ovate-truncate, 2nd globose, 
3rd of the same form and size as the 1st, the remainder rather 
shorter and quadrate, excepting the terminal one which is as 
long as the 1st, round and compressed at the ajoex (1). 
Labrum transverse oval, with a large semitransparent spot on 
each side, the anterior margin ciliated and notched at the centre, 
with a small tooth at the middle and 2 above it (2). 
Mandibles rather small, curved and narrow, ovate at the apex, 
with a shoulder on the inside producing 2 bristles (3). 
Maxilla broad, the base ciliated internally (4), the terminal lobe 
as long as the basal portion and rounded at the apex, with a 
few short bristles outside (a). Palpi very minute and formed 
of a single ovate joint (b). 

Mentum long, narrow and cylindric, trifid at the apex (5). Lip 
as long as the mentum, slender and linear (c). Paraglossce 
membranous and lanceolate (d). Palpi a little longer than the 
liji, 4-jointed, first 2 joints broad and compressed, basal joint 
considerably the longest, 2nd attenuated and hairy at the apex, 
3rd inserted outside the apex of the 2nd, short and slender as 
well as the 4th (b). 
Head short and broad : eyes large, lateral and ovate : ocelli 3 in 
triangle very conspicuous. Thorax short not broader than the head, 
nearly globose: scutellum short slightly emarginate, with a fiat tri- 
angular tooth on each side at the base. Abdomen short and ovate- 
conic, 6-Jointed in the male, 5 -jointed in the female, and armed with 
a long sting {s) and 2 elongated lobes (6 the lateral view). Wings, 
superior with a short oval marginal, and 3 complete submarginal 
cells, 2nd and Srd small, of equal size, and each receiving a recurrent 
nervure. Legs naked, nearly alike in both sexes, anterior the shortest, 
posterior the stoutest : tibiae, anterior with 1, posterior with 2 
spines at the apex : tarsi longer than the tibice, 5-jointed, basal joint 
long, notched on the inside at the base of the anterior pair, a little 
dilated and pubescent beneath in the posterior, especially in the male, 
the other joints very short : claws simple. 

Variegatus Lmw. — Curt. Guide, (?. 716. 1. — crucigeraP^. 61. 20. (J. 
Female. Opake black, thickly and minutely punctured and 
densely clothed with depressed pubescence : face and sides of 
thorax hoary ; margin of collar pale ochreous, as well as the 
base of the abdomen ; a transverse spot on each side the hinder 
margin of the 2 first segments, 2 on each side of the 3rd and 
4th, and 3 surrounding the 5th of the same colour; the mouth, 
a tubercle on each side the collar, the scapulars, the scutellum 
and the lobes, castaneous ; legs rather more ferruginous : wings 
tinged with yellow-brown and forming a fimbria ; nervures and 
stigma piceous. 



This pretty little bee seems to connect Coelioxys (pi. 349.) 
and Nomada (pi. 419.) ; from the former it is readily distin- 
tin^uished by the additional submarginal cell, and from the 
latter by its conical and pubescent abdomen. There are also 
other more important distinctive characters, but less visible, 
such as the great length of the basal joint of the labial palpi, 
with the 2nd joint acuminated, the minute maxillary palpus 
of one joint, as in Anthidium (pi. 6J.), the obtuse lobe of 
the maxillae, and the singular labruni with a small tooth in 
front and two above it, forming a triangle, which seem to have 
escaped the observation of Mr. Kirby and M. Latreille. 

It is a remarkable fact noticed by Mr. Kirby, that the male 
of this bee was unknown to him. I have taken a very consi- 
derable number of specimens, and am much gratified at having 
discovered one male amongst them, since it enables me to state 
that Panzer's figure is of that sex, and not a variety of the 
female ; for my male has an entirely black labrum and scu- 
tellum, with the lobes also black and less prominent than in 
the other sex : the 5th and 6th segments of the abdomen have 
a long transverse band of ochreous hairs entirely covering the 
back, and the little apical lobe is also black. The male is as 
large as the female, but the abdomen is more ovate, with 6 
joints : the antenna3 are rather shorter if anything, although 
13-jointed, and the basal joint of the hinder tarsi is clothed, I 
think, with rather longer hairs. 

The females seem to vary considerably in size, and the 
authentic specimen in the Linnsean cabinet mentioned by Mr. 
Kirby as having a black scutellum is probably the male. 

In Hampshire this bee is very abundant at the middle and 
end of August, on sandy and gravelly districts covered with 
the Calluiia vulgaris and other heaths, as Parley Common 
and Ramsdovvn near Heron Court. Mr. Samouelle once met 
with it in a sand-pit near Bexley, Kent, in July, where Mr. 
Johnson has lately taken it ; Mr. Dale has captured it the 
beginning of August at Blackgang Chine ; and Mr. Kirby 
found it, "but by no means common, in the autumn of two 
succeeding years, 1797 and 1798, flying about sunny banks;" 
and he adds, " since then I have not met with it." 

The pretty Ophnjs muscifera or mrjodes (Fly Ophrys) was 
communicated by N. B. Ward, Esq. 



jj'/g 





1'J 159^ 
419. 
NOMADA DALII. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apidse. 

Type of the Genus, Noniada ruficornis Linn. 

NoMADA Scop., Fab., Lat., Curt. — Apis Linn., Kirbij, &;c. 

Antennce inserted near the middle of the face, rather long and 
filiform, composed of 13 joints in the male (I), basal joint a little 
the longest pilose, 2nd subglobose, 3rd obconic truncate, re- 
mainder oblong, slightly decreasing in length, terminal joint sub- 
conic compressed : 12-jointed in the female (19)- 
Labrum transverse-ovate, ciliated with pubescent hairs (2). 
Mandibles rather long and slender, simple and obtuse at the apex, 
slightly hairy (3). 

Maxilla: with the basal portion as long as the mentum, horny, 

narrowed before, the lobe as long as the stalk, lanceolate and 

ciliated towards the apex (4a). Palpi very long slender and 

6-jointed, basal joint minute, 2nd and 3rd long of equal length, 

the remainder slightly decreasing in size (b), 

Mentum not very long but robust, rounded behind, emarginated 

in front (5). Labium as long as the mentum, rather stout, 

hollow, pubescent and transversely striated, suddenly narrowed 

at the apex (c) ; Paraglossce short and acute (d). Palpi longer 

than the lip, somewhat linear, pubescent and 4-jointed3 basal 

joint long, 2nd short, 3rd and 4th slender and subclavate, the 

latter the shortest (b). 

Head suborbicular, face rather JIat : eyes long and narrow : ocelli 3. 

Thorax globose. Abdomen of the females ovate obtuse and 6-jointed, 

tufted at the apex the terminal joint minute; 7 -jointed and more 

conical at the apex in the males, attached by a short stout petiole. 

Wings ; superior with 1 marginal and 3 perfect submarginal cells, 

stigtna sublanceolate. Legs alike in both sexes. Tibiae naked, 

spurred, anterior with a spine dilated on the inside. Tarsi 5-jointed, 

basal joint long. Claws recurved at the base. Pulvilli distinct, 

(8 tj hind leg of female). 

Dalii Curt, Guide, Gen. 7\7. 35. 

Piceous black, shining, clothed with yellowish hair, silvery on 
the clypeus : margin of labrum yellow, tips of mandibles ferru- 
ginous : tips of antennae ochreous, underside ochreous brown : 
head and thorax thickly punctured, the former with a minute spot 
on each side the crown close to the eyes and the margin below 
them yellow : abdomen with 2 yellow dots towards the base a 
large one on each side at the middle, the following segments 
with a yellow line on each side towards the base : wings bright 
iridescent, squamulse brown, a dark brown fimbria to the superior 
wings, the inferior tipped with the same colour, nervures and 
stigma brown : inside of 4 anterior thighs and tibiae and their 
tarsi ferruginous ; tips of posterior thighs and tibiae of the same 
colour. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale and the Author. 



This extensive genus of bees is remarkable for the wasp-like 
appearance of the species, as well as for an odour which they 
emit like honey and otto of roses. Many of them are very 
common, yet nothing is known I believe of their oeconomy : 
they are frequently seen coming out of holes in warm sandy 
banks, and Dr. Leach supposed them to be parasitical. 

1. N. Goodeniana K. — May, beginning of June, Gooseberry and White- 

thorn flowers. 

2. N. confinis Kirhy MSS. 

3. N. alternata K. — May, sunny banks and Gooseberry flowers. 

4. N. Lathburiana K, — July, sunny banks ? 

5. N. varia Panz. 55. 20. — Sept., ditto. 

6. N. flava Panz. 53. 21. — Middle of April, May, commons Glanville's- 

Wootton and Southgate. 

7. N. rufiventris K. — End of March, Epping Forest. 

8. N. Marshamella K. Int. Ent. i. 4. f. 3. — May, June, Round-rooted 

Crowfoot and White-thorns. 

9. N. cornigera K. — Don. 12. 408. 1.? — June, sunny sandy banks. 

10. N. subcornuta K. — May, on Geranium refiexum. 

11. N. Caprese K. — May, blossoms of Salix Caprea. 

12. N. lineola K. — Pa7iz. 53. 23. — Middle of June, August, umbelliferous 

plants. Isle of Wight. 

13. N. fucata Panz. 55. 19- — 30th of July, amongst heath, Blackgang 

Chine. 

14. N. leucophthalma A'. — May, blossoms of Salix Caprea. 

15. N. sexcincta K. — June, banks? 

16. N. SchaefFerella A'. — Schcef. Icon. 8 1 . 7- — End of June, BlackgangChine. 

17. N. connexa K. — 6-fasciata Patiz. 62. 18.? Ditto. 

18. N. Jacobsese K.—Panz. 72. 20. — Don. 12. 408. 2.?— Spring, Goose- 

berry ; August, Ragwort. 
19- N. flavopicta K. — September, Ragwort, Suffolk and Ireland. 

20. N. SolidaginisPfl?;-. 72.21. $ . — End of August, sandy places amongst 

heath near Lyndhurst and Ramsdown, Hants. 

21. N. picta K. — End of July to the middle of September, with last. 

22. N. rufopicta K. — July? flowers and banks. 

23. N. Hillana K. — May, June, near London, Kersall Moor and West- 

moreland. 

24. N. ochrostoma K. — Don. 12. 421. 3. — July? 

25. N. zonata Panz. — Discovered by J. C. 

26. N. ruficornis L. — Panz. 55. 18.— May, June, July; dry banks and 

sandy places. 

27. N. xanthosticta A'. — July, flowers and banks. 

28. N. Fabriciana L.—Kirh. Mon. tab. 16./. 3. 

29. N. (|uadrinotata A^ — July, Coomb Wood. 

30. N. flavoguttata A'. — June, sunny banks. 

31. N. pusio K. MSS. 

32. N. rufocincta K. — June, sunny banks. 

33. N. infuscata A'. MSS. 

34. N. Sheppanlana K. — June, beginning of August, Darent. 

35. N. Dalii Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 419.— Discovered by J. C. Dale, Esq. 

I believe in the New Forest. 

36. N. ferruginata L.~Kirhy Mon. t. 16./. 4.— germanica Panz. 72. 17- 

37. N. Wilkinana Kirhy's MSS. ? 

The Plant is Ribes Grossularia (Rough Gooseberry). 



125 





i-'a/: ^ iJ: €u,-r£^'jt^m./im <Ju^ f.'JdiC 



125. 
MELECTA PUNCTATA. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apiariae Lat. Apidae LcacJi. 

Type of the Genus Apis punctata Fab. 

Melecta Lat., Fab., Panz. — Crocisa Jiir. — Apis Linn., Fab., Kirbij. 
AntenncE inserted near the middle of the face, remote, filiform, of 
equal length in both sexes, submoniliform and 13-jointed in the 
males (fig. 1), I'i-jointed in the females, 1st joint elongated, 
hairy, 2nd minute, 3rd longer than the following, terminal joint 
subquadrate. 

Labrum large, inflected, convex, rough, pubescent, ciliated and 
emarginate before (2). 

Mandibles folding over the proboscis, rather long and slender, 
dilated at the base, acute, with a tooth on the internal edge, 
pilose externally (3). 

MaxillcE long, coriaceous, terminal lobe lanceolate, acute, in- 
flected (4 a). PalpiXong, 5-jointed, 1st and 2nd joints more 
I'obust than the remainder, which are very slender and nearly of 
equal length (4 b). 

Mentum elongated, slender linear, pubescent towards the base 
(5 a). Palpi longer than the lip, 1 st and 2nd joints compressed, 
membranous at the edges, basal joint very long, 2nd shorter, pu- 
bescent at the apex, 3rd arising near the apex of the 2nd, small 
clavate, 4lh small, elongate, ovate (b). To?? o-j<e membranous, 
often reflexed, as long as the 2 first joints of the palpi, slender, 
slightly attenuated (c) : lobes more than half the length of the 
lip, setaceous, dilated at the base. 
Head broader than the thorax. Ocelli 3 in triangle. Scutellum bi- 
dentate. Abdomen ovate-conic. Superior wings with 1 marginal 
and 3 submarginal cells. Stigma minute. Tibiae short, slender at 
the base, slightly pubescent, anterior with a winged spine on the inter- 
nal side. Tarsi pilose, long, 5-jointed, basal joint very long, incurved 
at the base and emarginate in the anterior pair, 3 following short, 
terminal joint longer, clavate. Claws deeply bifid. Pul villi distinct 
(8, afore leg). 
Obs. The dissections are taken froni a male. 



Punctata Fab. Ent. Syst. v. 2. p. 337. n. 90.—Kirby Hon. Ap. Ang. 
V. 2. p. 219. n. 35. 

Black, shining, minutely punctured. Head and thorax densely 
covered with yellowish gray pubescence ; scutellum with black 
pubescence : basal joint of abdomen covered with silvery pu- 
bescence, especially in the males, 2nd joint with a whitish spot 
on the side, the 3 following with a pure white spot on the side of 
each. Wings transparent, margined, and a little clouded with 
fuscous. Tibiae with silvery pubescence at the base. Tarsi sil- 
very externally. 

In the Authors and other Cabinets. 



This Genus, which approaches nearest to Epeolus, is distin- 
o-uished from it by the long pubescence with which the head, 
thorax, and base of the abdomen are clothed ; and upon an 
examination of the trophi, by the remarkable long and bristly 
lacinitE or lobes at the base of the tongue, and also by its long 
and 5-jointed maxillary palpi (described by Latreille and 
Leach as 6-jointed). 

The pretty species figured is the only one of the genus 
found in Britain, where it is universally distributed, being- 
plentiful in South Wales, and at Hampstead in the neighbour- 
hood of London ; Mr. Kirby has found it near Ipswich, and I 
have met with it occasionally in Suffolk from March to June. 
In April I have frequently observed its head of a bright orange 
colour, from its being covered with the pollen, I suspect, of 
Ulex Europanis, as I have seen it early in the morning tra- 
versing sunny banks where the Furze was in flower. 

Our bee is fond of dry banks and sandy situations ; but we 
know nothing satisfactory respecting its economy. INIr. Kirby 
more than 20 years back had reason to believe that it depo- 
sited its eggs in the cells of AntJiopJiora retiisa ,- and Dr. Leach 
also supposed it to be a parasite ; but we have heard of nothing 
since either to confirm or disturb these opinions. 

The plant figured is Glechoma hederacea (Ground Ivy). 




c^<^oe'(S--L, 



357. 
ANTHOPHORA HAWORTHANA. 



Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apiarise LaL Apidae Leach. 

Type of the Genus, Apis retusa Linn. 

Anthophora Lat., Sam., Curt. — Megilla B'ab., Panz. — Lasius Jur. — 
Andrena Fab. — Apis Linn., Kirby, &;c. 

Antennas inserted in the centre of the face, not approximating, 
short, geniculated and 13-jointed in the male ( I ), basal joint the 
most robust and very pubescent, 2nd globose, 3rd as long as the 
1st clavate, 4th shorter than any of the following which are oblong : 
similar in the female but a little longer and l2-jointed (i*). 
Labrum deflexed, convex, nearly quadrate, the angles a little 
rounded with two transparent spots at the base, anterior margin 
a little convex and ciliated (2). 

Mandibles slightly curved, clothed with long hairs, notched near 
the apex (3) : larger in the females and but slightly notched be- 
low the apex (3 9). 

Maxilla: with the basal portion short and broad, hairy towards 
the base, the edge above pectinated ; terminal lobe long and 
lanceolate, with a small pencil of hairs at the apex (4a). Palpi 
rather long and setaceous, 6-jointed, basal joint short, 2nd long, 
the remainder decreasing in length (b). 

Mentum rather short and linear (5). Tongue very long and 
•slender, ringed and tubular, the interior margins very pilose, ter- 
minated by a lanceolate appendage (c). Paraglossce lanceolate 
(d). Palpi extending as far as the tongue, slender, tapering, 
4-jointed, basal joint very long, 2nd not half the length, ciliated 
towards the apex, 3rd inserted below the apex and very small as 
well as the 4th (b). 
Head subtrigonate : eyes long and narrow : ocelli 3. Thorax much 
broader than the head in the female. Abdomen subovate conic, 
broad in the female. Wings with one marginal and 3 submarginal 
cells. Legs rather robust : Tibiae, posterior dilated and very pilose 
externally and the intermediate also in the females. Tarsi, interme- 
diate pair long in the males, the basal joint of the 4 posterior dilated 
in both sexes and furnished with a strong brush at the apex, in the 
hinder pair of the female. Claws hifd in the males, with a tooth on 
the underside in the females, Pulvilli distinct. 

VihWOYLTnMixKirby Mon. Ap. 2. 307. — Curtis's Guide, Gen. 720. 2. 
Male, black, thickly and minutely punctured : eyes pale brown : 
head and thorax clothed with bright fulvous hairs, labrum and 
underside of basal joint of antennae pale yellow, the former mar- 
gined with black, the clypeus irregularly edged with yellow : ab- 
domen clothed with black hairs, excepting the basal joint and 
the margins of the 2nd and 3rd which are fulvous : wings stained 
pale yellow, the nervures piceous, the posterior margin pale 
fuscous. Legs variegated with black and fulvous hairs : tibiae 
with the spurs ferruginous : middle and posterior tarsi fulvous, 
excepting the basal joint which is black and the apical one 
piceous, the intermediate joints being destitute of long hairs : 
claws ferruginous tipped with black. 
In the Cabinets of the Brit. Mus., Mr. Haworth, and Mr. Hanson. 






A. Haworthana was first described by Mr. Kirby from a 
specimen taken by the gentleman whose name it bears, in Ash- 
down Forest, Sussex, he believes : and about the same time 
Major General Davies captured one in a wood near Charlton 
in Kent. The male here represented was fomid in Epping 
Forest the first week in June, and for the loan of it I am in- 
debted to Mr. S. Hanson. The female is unknown. Our other 
species I shall describe. 

A. retusa Linn, female. Harris. Exp. tab. 38,/, 7.— acervorum Fab. Don, 
V. 3. p/. 108./. 2. Panz. 78, 18. — Male, pennipes Linn. MS. Don, 13. 
j,l 434.— pilipes Pz. 55. 8.— Hispanica Pz. 55. 6, Harris, pi. 40./. 14. 

Male rather more robust than A. Hatuorthana, thickly and minutely 
punctured and clothed with fulvous or yellowish hairs, more or less black 
at the apex of the abdomen: labrum, face, and underside of basal joint of 
antennas yellow, the first margined with black, with two black spots at the 
base, the second with two oblique black lines approaching the insertion 
of the antennae : mandibles sometimes with a yellow spot at the base : 
wings pale yellowish fuscous, nervures piceous : legs variegated with black 
and silvery pubescence and hair; spines of tibiae black: tarsi, middle, and 
posterior ferruginous or piceous, the basal and apical joints black, all the 
joints of the former plumose, producing very long hairs (fig. 8* ; <^,the thigh ; 
r, the tibia; (/, the tarsus) : claws ferruginous at the base. Female h\nck, 
very pilose ; labrum, middle and posterior tibiae externally, and the basal 
joint of the tarsi entirely clothed with bright ferruginous hairs. 

This species builds its nest in banks and old walls, and is 
seen flying about sunny and sandy banks in March, April, 
May, and the beginning of June: the male in its flight very 
much resembles a Helophilus. " When I first set out in my 
entomological career," says Mr. Kirby, " I began to notice 
the motions of this Apis, and have continued to do so occa- 
sionally ever since. Early in the spring the male may gene- 
rally be seen attendant upon his swarthy bride, fluttering round 
her, or hovering over her, while she with great coolness col- 
lects the honey from flower to flower, without bestowing any 
attention upon him ; if she departs he departs, and if she re- 
turns he returns likewise. During the season of courtship, 
his whole employment seems to be to attend upon her; but 
when die halcyon days of love are over, like many other hus- 
bands, he goes about his business, and leaves her to take her 
flights in solitude." 

Mr. Mathews, who is now engaged in collecting subjects of 
natural history in South America, found a nest of this insect 
in a wall at Chiswick, where they destroyed the grapes in the 
garden in September; and having caught a male and confined 
it in an open bo.K, he was enabled to take many specimens of 
the female, which came and settled there. This led him to 
diink the first was a female ; he also observed a considerable 
number o\^ Mdcda punctata {pi. 125.) entering and coming out 
of this nest as if they lived together, which renders Mr. Kirby's 
supposition very probable that they deposit their eggs in the 
nest of A. retusa. 

The plant is Aira cristata (Crested Hair-grass), communi- 
cated by Prolessor Henslow. 



36'/ 







8i 



361. 
SAROPODA BIMACULATA. 






Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apidae. 

Type of the Genus, Apis bimaculata Panz. 

Saropoda hat., Sam., Curt. — Megilla III. Panz. — Heliophila Klug. — 
Apis Kirby. 

AntenncE geniculated, filiform, compressed at the apex, almost 
as long as the thorax, and 13-jointed in the male (1), basal 
joint robust and long, 2nd cup-shaped, remainder short, 3rd 
obovate-truncate, the following subquadrate, apical joint oblong 
rounded: shorter and 12-jointed in the female (1 $), basal joint 
long, 2nd globose, 3rd longer than any of the following, subcla- 
vate-truncate, remainder subquadrate, terminal joint oblong, 
rounded and compressed. 

Lahrum rather transverse-oblong, the angles rounded, the pu- 
bescence extending over the anterior margin (2). 
Mandibles curved, broadest at the base, pilose, rounded at the 
apex and notched (3). 

MaxillcE with the stalk clothed with fine long hairs, concave and 
pectinated below the palpi (4); the lobe (a) long and broad, 
obtuse and pubescent at the apex. Palpi not very short, slender 
and pilose, 4-jointed, basal joint minute, 2nd the longest, 3rd 
shorter, 4th scarcely so long (b). 

Mentum elliptical (5). Tongue twice as long as the mentum, 
very pilose towards the extremity to which is attached a small 
appendage (c). Paraglosscc slender (d). Palpi extending as 
far as the tongue when at rest, rather broad at the base, but at- 
tenuated, 4 ?-jointed, basal joint very long, 2nd short, the others 
very indistinct, the apex pubescent (b). 

Head broad, subarbicular. Eyes long and narrow. Ocelli 3. Thorax 
globose. Abdomen ovate or conical, produced and deeply notched 
at the apex in the male, broader and more depressed in the female 
terminated by a broad spine with a tuft of short hair on each side. 
Wings with one marginal and 3 submarginal cells. Legs rather 
long and robust, intermediate very long in the male, with the ter- 
minal joint of their tarsi a little dilated. Claws bifid near the 
apex (8 (J) : Tarsi with the basal joint large and dilated in 4 pos- 
terior feet in both sexes, furnished externally with a bunch of long 
bristles in the posterior pair of the female. Claws with a tooth 
beneath each (8t> hind leg of female). 

Bimaculata Panz. 55. 17. 9. — Curtis' s Guide, Gen. 722. 1. 

Male black, minutely punctured, clothed with greyish hair: basal 
joint of the antennae beneath and the face below, yellow j clypeus 
and mandibles sulphur, tips of the latter piceous : eyes when 
living sea-green : pubescence on head and thorax pale tawny : 
segments of abdomen margined with whitish hairs : tarsi, ex- 
cepting the basal joint and the tip of the last, ferruginous. Fe- 
male : face below the antennae (which are entirely black) yellow, 
with 2 square black spots nearly meeting in the centre and 2 
dusky spots at the base of the labrum (1*) j margins of the 1st 
segment of abdomen slightly, of the 3 following densely fringed 
with greyish hair, apex black. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



Nearly related as this genus is to Anthophora (pi. 357), 
there are most important differences in their trophi, antennae, 
and legs; but the easiest means of distinguishing them will be 
by examining the 3rd joint of the antennae, which is shorter 
than the first in Saropoda. 

1. S. bimaculata Panz. Kirby 2. 286. 63 — Curt. Brit. Ent. 

pi. 361. cT- 
The 31st of July I observed the females at the back of the 
Isle of Wight, flying about and alighting upon the plant 
figured in the plate: they made a loud and shrill buzzing with 
their short wings. On the 15th of August I found a male 
and many females sleeping in the same flowers, it having 
rained several days previousl3\ A few days before I saw both 
sexes flying over barren and heathy places and entering their 
burrows. 

2. S. \u\pma Pa7iz. 56. 6. ^?—Kir. 2. 290. 65. 

Black, clothed with pale soft hairs ; thorax flavescent ; seg- 
ments of the abdomen with the margins pale; intermediate 
thighs large and clavate. Kirby. — Male with the basal joint 
of antenna beneath, the face below, and labrum ochreous, 2 
black triangular spots on the clypeus, and 2 at the base of the 
labrum. 

I think I took one the beginning of August at Bognor, flying 
about a felled tree. 

3. S. rotundata Panz. 56. 9. S- — Kir. 2. 291. 66. 
Clothed with soft greyish hair ; mouth yellow ; abdominal 

segments with the margins subrufous; thorax of the female 
blackish, of the male fulvous. Kirby. 

July, on the flowers of Erica in a sunny sand-pit near 
Coombe-wood, Mr. Kirby; and Mr. Newman in his garden 
at Deptford. 

4. S. subglobosa Kir. 2. 295. 68. 

Black, slightly clothed with whitish hairs ; abdomen sub- 
globose. Kirby. — Obs. In my specimen the edges of the abdo- 
minal segments are somewhat ochreous. 

Taken by Mr. Haworth. 

5. S. furcataPan^. 56. 8. S -—Kir. 2. 288. 64. ; tab.ll.f. 5^6. 
Female black, clothed with griseous pubescence, anterior 

part of face, labrum and anus, clothed with ferruginous hair. 
Male black, clothed with cinereous pubescence ; anterior por- 
tion of face and labrum yellow, apex of abdomen furcate. 
Kirby. 

Tliis species is rare in Suffolk, but more frequent near 
London. We learn from Mr. Kirby that it nidificates in a 
manner similar to Apis violacea, in pieces of putrescent wood. 
— vide V. I. p. 188. 

The plant is Cenlaurca Scabiosa (Great Knapweed). 



468. 

PSITHYRUS RUPESTRIS. 

The black- winged Humble-bee. 

Order Hymenoptera. Fam. Apidse. 
Type of the Genus, Apis rupestris Fab. 

PsiTHYRUs LeP. — Bombus Lat., Curt. — Bremus J«r. — Apis Xm?z., 
Kirby. 

AntenncB inserted at the middle of the face, longer than the 
head, geniculated, filiform, 13-jointed in the male, basal joint 
long clavate, 2nd minute, 3rd obovate, nearly as long as the 
5th, 4th subquadrate, only half the length of the following 
which are oblong, the terminal joint compressed and rounded 
at the apex (1 (5^) ; similar but shorter in the female, and only 
12-jointed. 

Labrum transverse, subovate-trigonate, very hairy (2). 
Mandibles crossing, alike, long narrow and slightly curv'ed, 
ovate at the apex, or rounded obliquely, hairy externally (3). 
Maxillee as long as the mentum, very hairy externally, with a 
brush of hairs on the inside (4), terminated by a homy lobe as 
long as the tongue, broad at the base and attenuated to the 
apex (a). Palpi minute, formed of one oblong joint attached 
to a scape at the external apex of the stipula (6). 
Mentum long and rather stout, linear, slightly attenuated to- 
wards the base, the anterior margin sinuated (5). Tongue 
nearly as long as the palpi, tubular, slightly attenuated at the 
apex and terminated by a little mouth, the outside thickly 
clothed wdth depressed hairs (c). Paraglosscc short, broad 
rounded, and ciliated at the apex {d, with one detached and 
more magnified). Palpi long, rather broad and slightly atte- 
nuated, the internal margin hairy towards the apex, 4-jointed, 
basal joint more than twice the length of the 2nd ; the 3rd and 
4th very minute obovate (b). 
Neuters none. Head vertical ovate : eyes long and narrow : ocelli 
3, placed transversely in a curved line. Thorax large and globose ; 
sciitellum large semiorbicular . Abdomen ovate or oblong, incurved 
at the apex. Wings, superior with one marginal, 3 nearly equal 
submarginal and 3 discoidal cells. Legs, anterior small. Tibiae 
spurred at the apex, posterior convex and very hairy externally, 
especially in the female (8 f), smaller, straight and slightly clavate 
in the male. Tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint long and dilated, posterior 
not producing a tooth at the base. Claws with a tooth on the inside : 
pulvilli very pubescent. 
Obs. Fig. 1 . is the antenna of B. Barbutellus Don. 



Rupestris Fab. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 723. 1. 

Female black, shining, punctured, clothed with black hairs : 
abdomen with the 4th and follow'ing segments clothed with deej> 
orange hairs : wings long, dark brow'n and iridescent : tarsi 
rusty brown, the basal joint black, clothed inside w'ith ferrugi- 
nous pile. Male not identified. 

In the Author s and other Cabinets. 



Four of the Bombi were formed into a subdivision by Mr. 
Kirby in his Monograph, and they have been lately designated 
as the genus Psithyrus, Avhich I think might as well have been 
called Bremus, a name given to the Bombi by Jurine. 

The males are distinguished from the Bombi by the nearly 
equal breadth of the posterior tibiae, which are externally con- 
vex and thickly clothed with hairs, whereas in Bombus they 
increase from the base to the apex, are slightly concave ex- 
ternally at the centre, and have only scattered hairs ; the 
females are still more strongly marked, having in addition to 
the above characters, a trigonate labrum and mandibles not 
toothed. 

The following are our British species : 
1. P. rupestris Fab. — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 468. represents the 
female a little larger than life. — arenaria Pz. 74. 12. 
var. The male is unknown unless it be the P.frute- 
torum. 

End of June, several on a thistle, near Drayton Norfolk, and 
Wrentham Suffolk, also by the road-side, and flying about a 
hay-stack in Cambridgeshire ; middle of August, on a common 
near Coombe, Mr. R. Lewis ; beginning of September and 
middle of October, Isle of Wight, J. C. ; near Axbridge and 
Glanville's Wootton, Mr. Dale. 
'2. P. frutetorum Pz. 75. 20. — Albinellus Kir. v. 2. p. 361. 

Beginning and middle of August, on thistles, Richmond 
Park, once with P. rupestris, Mr. R. Lewis : at Barham, in 
the autumn, Mr. Kirby. 

3. P. Rossiellus K. tab. 18. f. 1 $ .—^chcef. Icon. t. 241./7&8. 

The male only of this Insect is known, but probably 
P. campestris may be the female. 
Barham, in flowers : middle of July, Dover, J. C. ; middle 
of August, Coombe Wood, on thistles, Mr. Lewis. 

4. P. campestris Pz. 74. \\. — Kir. 1. 18./. 2 ? . 

Barham, in spring and summer; June and July, near Brix- 
ton Hill and Coombe, Mr. Lewis ; Shanklin Chine, Mr. Dale. 

5. P. Barbutellus Don. v. 11. ;?/. 385. f. 3.— saltuum Pz. 75. 

21 J? — autumnalis Fab. S var. 
Barham, flowers in summer ; male frequent on thistles : mid- 
dle of May, Hampstead; end of June, Darent; common in 
Battersea Fields. 

6. P. vestalis Four.— Kir. /f. 18. /. 3 &4 ? & S ■ — Don. 13. 

;pZ. 464 — aestivalis Pz. 89. 16. 
Barham, flowers of Tussilago Farfara (pi. 367), often flying 
close to die ground. Mr. Lewis finds it in Coombe Wood 
lane about May. 

The Plant is Digitalis purpurea (Purple Foxglove). 



■J* 






s6m 





Sf 



I \ 



y i^r- fy^^'*--'-^/.-^- ^'-''^ 



564. 
BOMBUS ERICETORUM. 

The heath Humble-bee. 



Order Hymenoptera. • Fam. Apidge. 

Type of the Genus, Apis terrestris Linn. 

BoMBUs Lat., Curt. — Bremus Jur., Panz. — Apis Linn., Kirby, Panz. 
AntenntE inserted at the middle of the face, longer than the head, 
geniculated, filiform; 13-jointed in the male, basal joint long, 
clavate, 2nd somewhat cup-shaped, 3rd obovate; nearly as long 
as the 5th, 4th subquadrate, the remainder longer, oblong, ter- 
minal joint wedge-shaped, rounded at the apex ; rather shorter 
and 12-jointed in the female (1 $ ), 3rd joint longer than any 
of the following. 

Labrum transverse, thickly ciliated with rather long hairs, an- 
terior margin slightly notched on each side (2). 
Mandibles elongated, rounded and crenated at the apex, spoon- 
shaped, narrowed a little towards the base ; ciliated externally 
with pubescent hairs (3). 

Maxillae as long as the mentum, hairy outside, terminated by a 
long lanceolate horny lobe (4 a) . Palpi short, attached to an 
ovate scape, composed of one very slender elongated joint (6). 
Mentum long, elliptic, rounded at the base, bisinuated before (5). 
Lip long and linear but slightly attenuated at the apex (c). 
Paraglossce short broad and rounded. Palpi rather longer than 
the lip, attached to scapes, broad compressed and 4-jointed ; 
basal joint very long, 2nd very much shorter, lanceolate and 
distinctly ciliated on the inside, 3rd and 4th joints minute, some- 
what obtrigonate and attached near the apex of the 2nd joint {b) . 
Neuters small. Head triangular -ovate : eyes long, vertical and nar- 
row : ocelli Z, forming a transverse curved line. Thorax large and 
globose: scutellum large, semiorbicular. Abdomen ovate, very hairy. 
Wings, superior with one marginal, 3 nearly equal submarginal and 
3 discoidal cells. Legs, anterior short : tibiae spurred at the apex, 
anterior small and trigonate, posterior broad, externally smooth, 
shining, concave, and free from hair in both sexes. Tarsi 5-jointed, 
basal joint oblong and dilated, with the external basal angle forming 
a horizontal tooth in the hinder pair of the female (Sf). Claws bifid. 



Ericetorum Panz.? — Curt. Guide, Gen. 723. 13*. 

Black, clothed with yellow hairs; those of the mouth ferruginous; 
hinder portion of the thorax and base of scutellum dusky; a line 
of ferruginous hairs at the base of the 2nd abdominal segment, 
which bears a slightly dusky band, as well as the 3rd ; 4th with 
a black band at the base, 5th and 6th white : apex of wings 
pale reddish brown, with the costa towards the apex darker, 
nervures piceous, the subcostal nervures pale ferruginous ; tarsi 
with the inside of the basal joint clothed with bright ferruginous 
hairs, the following joints, especially the apical one, of a duller 
colour. 

In the Author s Cabinet. 



The Humble-bees comprise a fine group of insects in this 
country, readily distinguished by their hairy and handsome 
clothino-. In the first fine days ot" spring, or even earlier, the 
females, which 1 believe hybernate, are attracted by the blos- 
soms of the Willows to collect honey and pollen ; the neuters 
appear later in the season, but the males are not common till 
the autumn, when, as Mr. Kirby observes, " the thistles are 
in bloom, upon the flowers of which they are abundant, some- 
times seemingly asleep, or torpid, at others acting as if intoxi- 
cated with the sweets they have been imbibing." 

Humble-bees build their nests in the roots of trees or 
amongst rubbish of bricks and stones ; they may be constantly 
seen in the summer collecting moss for the purpose of cover- 
ing their nests, which ai'e sometimes lined with wax. The 
comb is irregular, and formed of oval cocoons made of a kind 
of silk daubed with wax ; they vary greatly in number, some- 
times amounting to sixty, and are adapted in size to the three 
sexes. Want of space compels me to refer the reader to the 
6th vol. of Reaumur, and to Kirby's Monograph, for admi- 
rable accounts of this interesting tribe. 

Perhaps no genus presents more difficulties in determining 
the species than Bombus; there are males, females, and neu- 
ters of two sizes, and the hairs with which they are clothed 
vary in colour with age ; it is therefore only by examining their 
nests that the species can be ascertained, and perhaps not then 
with constant or unerring success. I have some suspicion 
that there are hybrids, and my friend Mr. Lyell took a female 
of B. subintey-ruptus or terrestris, and two specimens of B. syl~ 
varum or Burrellamis out of the same nest in Scotland, and I 
have specimens of the second and third of these insects, which 
were captured together. 

One species was added to this genus in my Guide, and since 
then three others have been discovered. 

12*. B. Hypnorum Linn. — Panz. 7.12. 

Found near Hampstead by Mr. Shuckard. 
.13*. ericetorum Pa7iz. 75. 19.? — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 564'. c?. 

Mr. Lyell kindly presented this specimen to me, which he 
took at Kinnordy. It does not quite agree with Panzer's 
figure. 

15. Pomorum Panz. 86. 18. 

I took this handsome species near Dover the middle of Au- 



gust. 



24*. regelationis Panz. 86. 17» 

Found near Halifax by Mr. A. H. Davis. 

The Plant is Tillcca muscosa (Mossy Red-shanks). 



76g 




liyanOt/ /IftS 






/^,uj/urSC c^/iy 



n^i i>3i 



769. 
APIS MELLIFICA. 

The Common Hive or Honey Bee. 

OiiDER Hymenoptera. Fam. Apidae. 

Type of the Genus, Ajjis mellifica Linn. 
Apis Linn., Fab., Kirb., Cm-t. Guide, Gen. 724. 1. 

Antennce inserted at the centre of the face, approximating, ge- 
niculated, filiform, 13 -jointed in the male {I ^), basal joint the 
longest and stoutest, hairy outside, 2nd oblong, 3rd and 4th 
short, the remainder oblong, apical joint conical compressed : 
r2-jointed in the neuter (1 9). basal joint much longer, hairy, 
2nd small, 3rd a little longer, obovate- truncate, 3rd the short- 
est, following oblong, apical joint short, conic compressed. 
Labrum of male short, broad, and nearly linear, ciliated with 
long hairs (2): anterior margin convex in the neuter (2). 
Mandibles small in the male, dilated at the base, slender above, 
apex bidentate, densely clothed with long pubescence outside 
(3) : corset-shaped in the neuter, hairy outside, apex obliquely 
ovate, concave and ciliated on the margin (3). 
Maxillee a little shorter than the mentum in the male (4), ter- 
minated by a horny lanceolate lobe as long as the lip («). Palpi, 
minute ovate lobes (b) : a little more distinct in the neuters. 
Mentum not very long in the male, elliptic-truncate (5); rather 
l)roader at the base in the neuter (5). Lip twice as long, linear, 
very pubescent, except at the base, apex ovate in the male(c^: 
longer, less hairy, with a valve at the apex in the neuter (c). 
Paraglossce rather large and ovate in the male, notched behind 
(rf) : much smaller in the neuter. Palpi shorter than the lip in 
the male, attached to scapes, broad, compressed and 4-jointed, 
ciliated internally, basal joint long and elliptic, 2nd moderate, 
subovate, 3rd attached to the apex of the 2nd, small, elongate- 
ovate as well as the 4th (b) : longer than the lip in the neuter, 
from the greater length of the basal joint (b). 
Male : face orbicular : eyes very long, 'pubescent, contiguous above : ocelli 3 
in triangle in front. Thorax large, transverse : scutel lunate. Abdomen 
6-jointed, elongate-ovate, very hairy at the base and apex, basal joint con- 
cealed. Wings ample, with 1 long marginal and 3 siihmarginal cells, '2nd 
subtrigonate, 3rd oblique. Legs stout, hinder the longest pubescent (8f ) ; 
thighs not long : tibias short, anterior with a membranous dilated spine at 
the apex, intermediate with a long and slender one, hinder tibia longer, di- 
lated and compressed at the apex, very velvety inside, spurs none : tarsi 5- 
jointed, basal joint oblong, anterior luith a very deep notch at the base, hinder 
■ large, elliptic and very velvety inside, remainder short, hairy, oblrigonate, 
4th cordate, 5th large, obconic : claws strong, bifid at the apex : pulvilli 
ovate. Neuter : face cordate : eyes moderate, remote : ocelli 3 on the crown. 
Abdomen short, ovate-conic, basal joint short, but distinct : sting serrated 
at the apex, inclosed in 2 valves. Wings moderate. Legs all hairy : tibiae, 
hinder very broad and pectinated at the apex (Sf), very pubescent inside : 
tarsi, basal joint dilated in the intermediate, very large in the hinder, densely 
pubescent and striated transversely on the insiuc, the outer superior angle 
hooked, following joints compressed and a little dilated: claws deeply bifid 
on the inside. Female : head smaller. Wings shorter than the body. Ab- 
domen long and conical. Hinder legs and all the tarsi with very short pu- 
bescence inside, basal joint not hooked above. Obs. the female resembles 'he 
neuter in the trophi, and, other parts unnoticed above, and the oral and other 
parts of the neuter, not noticed, are similar to those of the male. The G dis- 
sections on the left are from the male, the 5 on the right from the neuter. 

391. 



A. Mellifica Linn. — mellifera Fourc. — cerifera Scop. — gre- 

garia G^-o^ — doinestica Ray. 

Piceous, clothed with fine silky ochreous hairs : antennse black : wings 
yellowish, nervures ferruginous. Male the darkest, thorax and 2nd 
joint of abdomen velvety, the space between them filled up with ochreous 
down, margins of segments pale; 2 apical joints clothed with longish pi- 
ceous hairs: tarsi ferruginous, excepting outside of basal joints. Neuter: 
thorax hairy, hinder tibiae as well as tarsi ferruginous internally, light 
brown outside. Female : second abdominal segment with 2 large rufous 
patches at the base : hinder legs deep and bright ochreous. 
Our figures represent the male, neuter, and female somewhat 
larger than life, but their relative proportions are preserved : 
the comb was one foot in length. I consider myself fortunate in 
being able to introduce into my plate the nest of some Hive- 
bees, which was discovered by Lord Malmesbury in his planta- 
tions, near the river Avon, not far from Sopley. I had the 
jjratification of seeinjr it before it was removed in October 
1 838 ; it was attached to the arm of a tree, and hung down, as 
represented in the plate, about 2 feet from the ground : a con- 
siderable number of the bees had died with their heads in the 
cells. Combs have been rarely found in hollow trees in this 
country, but one formed on the outside is I believe without a 
parallel in the history of bees. 

It would not be possible for me to condense into my limited 
space the valuable remarks that have resulted from the ob- 
servations of Swammerdam, Reaumur, Huber, Wildman and 
Kirby, I must therefore content myself with referring to their 
works, and to Dr. Bevan's " History of the Honey-Bee," tor 
accounts of the wonderful ceconomy of these little animals ; I 
shall however transcribe a few remarks from the Mag. of Zool. 
It is more than probable (says Dr. Bevan) that the life of the working 
bee does not exceed 6 or 7 months. A good family of bees consists of from 
12 to 20,000, and a fertile queen breeds that number every year, but they 
all die annually except about 8000, which are supposed to be the summer 
and autumn hatched ones. In the 1st week of July the young workers be- 
gin to issue from their cells, and continue to do so for nearly 3 weeks : on 
tlic 13th July was the first issue of drones, which continued to come forth 
till the 2.5tb; these, if not killed by the neuters, begin to die naturally the 
end of October till the middle of November, so that the life of the drone is 
about 4 months ; the queen has been traced from hive to hive through a pe- 
riod of nearly 4 years, so that she sees many generations pass away. 

I may add that in the early days of April the workers awake 
from their slumbers, and resort to the catkins of the willows to 
rej)lenish their stores; the males appear later, and amount to 
about 1500. 

With the bee I have now concluded my task, and I trust the 
materials collected have been selected to the taste and advantage 
of those who have taken an interest in my Hive. I have to 
thank my friends who have so handsomely protected it against 
the attacks of enemies, as well as those whose valuable mate- 
rials have been so kindly contributed during sixteen years to 
Us support. After a little rest I hope to resume my labours,* 
and 1 trust the contents of a future hive may prove as accept- 
able to the public as the present one. 

• Vide the Prospectus attached to this volume, regarding the Synopsis 
of Species and an Atlas of Genera. 



//^ 






p 







712. 

LIBELLULA RUBICUNDA. 

Order Neuroptera. Fam. Libellulida?. 

Type of the Genus, Libellula depressa Linn. 
LiBELLULA Linn. &c. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 725. 

Antenna insQxtQdi on each side of a vesicle before the eyes, short 
slender setiform and 6-jointed, basal joint the stoutest, short 
and cylindrical, 2nd not so stout but a little longer and bristly, 
the remainder slender and setaceous, 3rd joint much the longest, 
4th scarcely so long as the 2nd, 5th a little longer, 6th as long 
as the 3rd, acute at the apex and terminating in a bristle (1). 
La&rwm large, transverse, convex, semioval, bristly outside (2). 
Tongue ? subovate, dilated tovi^ards the apex and bristly (*). 
Mandibles short and stout, deeply bifid at the apex, with a 
cluster of 4 or 5 short teeth on the inside (3). 
Maccillce with a short stipes, the terminal portion dilated at the 
base, rounded and bristly internally, the apex claw-shaped, 
with 2 smaller teeth below and 3 long stout spines on the out- 
side, external lobe long curved and very bristly (4). 
Mentum small. Lip very large and convex, formed of 2 qua- 
drate orbicular lobes very bristly on the margins (5), with 2 mi- 
nute teeth at the inner angle, opj^osite each other (^). 
Head large, the base concave ; eyes very large, meeting on the crown : 
ocelli 3, placed round a vesicle before the eyes. Thorax large and 
oblong. Abdomen moderately long, sometimes broad depressed and 
attenuated at the apex, with 2 horny lobes at the base in the males, 
and 2 moveable lobes at the apex (6 (^) ; females with 2 shorter 
lobes at the apex ( ? ). Wings extended horizontally, alike m both 
sexes, inferior the broadest, especially at the base, very much reticu- 
lated, stigma elongated but short in some. Legs, anterior the stout- 
est, hinder a little the longest : thighs spiny on the inside : tibiae 
slender, with 2 series of spreading acute slender spines on each side : 
tarsi short triarticulate, hinder the longest, basal joint the shortest, 
terminal the longest : claws cleft towards the apex. 
Larva and Pupae aquatic, short and broad, both furnished with legs 
for walking, similar to the imago. Roesel, v. 2. tab. 6. f. 1. 2. 

RuBicuNDA Linn. — pectoralis Charp. ? — dubia Vand. Lin. ? 

Male. Dull black, face and labrum yeUowish-white : thorax with 2 
deep orange stripes before the wings and several marks under 
them ; the disc, including the scutel, postscutel and scapulae 
sanguineous : abdomen with the 1 st segment, excepting the 
base, and the basal ring of the 2nd, sanguineous, this and the 
4 following with deep orange spots at or near the base, more or 
less ovate and increasing in size ; underside blueish-grey : wings 
hyaline, nervures piceous, the costal and transverse costal ner- 
vures whitish ; stigma oval and brown, a small brown spot at 
the base of the superior, and a small and larger one at the base 
of the inferior wings. Female. Labrum brown with yellowish 
spots, the spots on the thorax and abdomen all yellow, the 
latter with 3 large yellow spots on each side of the base, and 
one on each side of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th segments, the central 
one the largest : the basal spots on the wings arc more extended. 
In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale, the Author, S^c. 



LiBELLULA is one of the most extensive genera of this magnifi- 
cent family of insects, which may be divided into 2 sections. 

1. Abdomen dilated and more or less depressed. 

1. depressa Linn. — Don. v. S. pi. S\ S • 'v. 1. pi. 24 ? . 
Marshy places and ponds everywhere, from April to Aug. 

2. quadrimaculata Linn. — Don. 12. 407. — Sam.pl. I.f. 1. — 
prasnubila Newm. var. 

Ponds and woods, middle of May to August, Middlemarsh, 
Parley, New Forest, Oxford, Whittlesea and Meldon Park, 
Mr. Dale; also at Epping. 

3. bimaculata Charp. ? Step. June, Whittlesea Mere. 

4. conspurcata Fab. — 4-rasciata Don. 12. 425. 

Hedges, lanes, &c., from middle of May to the middle of 
July, Parley, Glanville's Wootton and Newnham, Bedford- 
shire, Mr. Dale ; Sprowston near Norwich and Deptford. 

5. cancellata Linn. — Don. 14. 472. — Int. to Ent. pi. S.f. 5. ? . 
Croydon canal, Peckham, Horning and Fakenham, Nor- 
folk, Whittlesea Mere, Abbey Meadows, Kilburn, end of 
June to middle of August, J. C. 

6. Sparshalli Dale's Mss. Taken at Horning in 1823 by the 
late Mr. J. Sparshall ; it is very similar to a Chinese species. 

2. Abdomen triquetrous^ sublinear or slightly clavatc. 

7. coerulescens 2^. — Donovan i L^fl'. — biguttata Z)ow.' 1 3.449 c?. 
May to September, Charmouth, Portland, Empole, Parley, 

Enborne, Gamlingay bogs and Isle of Man, Mr. Dale ; New 
Forest and Black-gang-chine, J. C. 

8. vulgata Linn. — Don. 10, 337. 1. 

Ponds and ditches from June to 19th Nov. everywhere. 

9. Veronensis Charp. Taken by Mr. Harrison of Hull. 

10. flaveolata Linn. — Schajf. Icon. t. ^^.f. \. 

Taken by Mr. Lyell at Kinnordy in Forfarshire, and by 
Mr. Doubleday last year at Epping in abundance. 

11. angustipennis Step. III. June, near London. 

12. Roeselii Curt. — Roesel, 2. /;/. 8, _/] 4. — basalis Step. ?? 
rufostigma Neiso. var. Whittlesea Mere, Mr. Bentley. 

13. Scotica Don. 15. 523. — nigra Va7i. Lin. — pallidistigma 
Step. var. 

June to Nov. abundant on Parley Heath ; Isle of Arran. 

14. rubicunda Linn. — Curt. Biit. Ent.pl. 712. c?. 

This line insect was discovered last year, about deep pools 
of water on Thorne moor near Dorchester, by Mr. Beckett ; 
Mr. Dale found it there in abundance the middle of July, but 
it was less common in August ; Mr. Harrison also took it 
near Glandford Brigg, Lincolnshire. For a fine series I am 
indebted to the Rev. F. O. Morris and T. C. Heysham, Esq., 
who took them in the North of England. 

The plant is Carer digitata, Fingered Carex, from Leigh 
wood, conmumicated by Mr. Tliwaites. 



6/6 



C — D 








)3- /% 3^ 

616. 
CORDULIA CURTISII. 



Order Neuroptera. Fam. Libellulidae. 

Type of the Genus, Libellula aenea Linn. 

CoRDULiA Leach., Curt. — Libellula Linn., Fab., Lat., Vand. Lind. 
— TEschna Charp. 

Antennce very small, inserted close to the ocelli on the anterior- 
margin of the eyes, 6-jointed, 2 basal joints stout and hairy, 
1st the shortest and dUated anteriorly, 2nd elongate cyhndric, 
the remainder forming a slender seta, 3rd joint longer than the 
2nd, 4th not longer than the 1st, 5th as long as the 2nd, 6th 
the longest (1). 

Labrum exserted, broad and short, the sides rounded and ciliated 
as well as the anterior margin (2). 

Tongue ? large, inflated, broadest and hairy at the apex (*). 
Mandibles broad, short and thick, the apex truncated obliquely, 
and forming 5 short sharp teeth (3) , 

Maxillce with the stripes short, terminated by a homy falcate 
lobe, dilated at the base and ciliated internally, with 6 elongated 
curved acute teeth at and below the apex, and a thick linear 
palpiform lobe outside, subfalcate and hairy externally (4). 
Labium very large and convex, entirely covering the mouth and 
concealing the trophi, excepting the labrum, trilobate, the late- 
ral lobes very large, suborbicular, hairy, the internal margins 
crossing, central lobe smaller, transverse and covering a portion 
of the base of the others (5). 
Head large, concave at the base : eyes very large meeting on the crown : 
ocelli 3 ? in a cavity in front of a vesicle before the eyes. Thorax 
large and ovate. Abdomen long cylindric or compressed, clavate, 
narrowed towards the base in the male with 2 spines beneath the 2nd 
joint and 4 appendages at the apex, the inferior ones furcate (6 (^),- 
but these are absent in the female (6 ? ). Wings nearly equal, ex- 
tended horizontally, very much reticulated, stigma elongated; infe- 
rior wings with the anal angle acute in the male (9 (J). Legs 
slender, anterior the shortest : thighs linear, serrated inside : tibiae 
armed with a double row of spreading long spines : tarsi spiny, triar- 
ticulate, basal joint short, 2nd and 3rd elongated : claws cleft near 
the apex (8, afore tibia and tarsus). 
Larvae and pupae aquatic, both furnished with legs for walking similar 
to the imago. Roesel, v. 2. t. 5. f. 1. 



CuRTisii Dale in Loudon's Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. 7. p. 60. — Curt. 
Guide, Gen. 726. 2. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale and the Author. 

The Cordulige are distinguished by their uniform metallic 
colour; they are separated from Libellula, to which they are 
most allied, by the angulated anal margin of the inferior 



wings, and from all the other Dragon-flies by the small central 
lobe of the labium, as well as by the vesicle on the crown of 
the head. 

The species of Cordulia are the following : 

1. metallica Vand. Lind. Mon. 18. 13. — Schcnf. Icon. tab. 113. 
y; 4. ? . — Roesel 2. Aq. II. tab. 5.f. 2. ^ . — Harris Expos, 

tab. 27./. 2. ? . 

Brassy-green, abdomen thickened in the middle, all the anal 

appendages in the male simple, acuminated ; wings lutescent, 

stigma yellow. 

This species is admitted as British on the authority of Van- 
der Linden, who quotes Harris's figure as the male, but it is 
the female he has represented. 

2. aenea Linn. — Schccf. tab. 161 -f. 4. ? . tab. 182./ 1. ^. — Sew. 
Brit. Mis. tab. 47. d". — Don. 12. 415. (?. 

Brassy green, abdomen thickened towards the apex, inferior 
anal appendages furcate in the male ; stigma black ; labium 
and spots on the underside of 2 or 3 of the basal abdominal 
segments ochreous. 

This species has been taken from the end of May to July 
atWinandermere; nearWisbeach; in Starston and Costessey 
Woods, Norfolk ; Martlesham Heath, Suffolk; Woodford; Ep- 
ping Forest; Hampstead; near Beaulieu, Brockenhurst; and 
Pennington Commons, Hants. I have generally found it in 
plantations where there are fir-trees, in such situations as Ca- 
lepteryx frequents. 

3. Curtisii Dale. — Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 616. ^. 
Male glossy green, with ochreous pubescence; face bright 
green ; base of the labrura and the labium ochreous ; eyes 
pale pea-green, with a purple transverse stripe ; back of the 
thorax ochreous, marked with black; abdomen compressed, 
with a line of yellow spots down the back, decreasing in 
length, forming 2 connected oval spots on each segment, 
the basal one being the largest, 7th and 8th segments with 
a pale margin only ; wings of a very pale yellowish tint, with 
a small space at the base bright ferruginous ; stigma, ner- 
vures and legs dark piceous ; anterior thighs ochreous in- 
side at the base. Female with ferruginous-yellow wings, 
softened into pale brown towards the posterior margin. 
This fine species, which is unknown upon the Continent, 
was discovered by Mr. Dale on Parley Heath the 29tli June, 
1820, and subsequently at Hurne in Dorsetshire as late as 
the 16th July. On the 8th June, 1831, I captured a specimen 
on the side of Ramsdown near Heron Court, in company with 
Mr. Dale, who soon after described it in Loudon's Magazine 
under its present name. I understand it has also been taken 
on Braunton Burrows, Devon, by Mr. Cocks. 

The plant is Liizula {Juncus) campestris^ Field Rush. 



'32 





'H^^:^ lJ€^.-,A^ ?72a^,f:fS$'^ 



)L' n3i 



732. 
AGRION RUBELLUM. 

Order Neuroptera. Fam. Libellulidse. 

Type of the Genus, Libellula puella, Linn. 
Agrion Fab., Lot., Vand. Lind., Curt. — Libellula Linn. 

Antenna inserted between the eyes close to the inner margin, 
very remote, shorter than the head, triarticulate, basal joint 
the stoutest, subovate, 2nd not so stout but longer, a little 
globose at the apex, both with very long hairs, 3rd a mode- 
rately long seta, stoutish and tapering (1). 
Labrmnlarge, transverse-ovate, thickly clothed with longhairs (2). 
Mandibles rather small, broad at the base, subtrigonate, the 
apex acute, trifurcate, with 2 clusters of teeth on the inside (3). 
Maxillee small, forming a compressed lobe, terminated by a long 
curved claw, with 2 teeth on the inside, 3 long spines below, 
the rest producing hairs ; external lobe or palpus compressed, 
curved and hairy, with a small tubercle or joint at the apex (4). 
Mentum short but broad. Labium large hairy and covering the 
mouth, ovate-trigonate, the apex rounded, with a deep broad 
notch in the centre. Palpi very hairy, biarticulate, basal joint 
very large, curved, compressed, a little attenuated, furnished 
with a long incur\^ed claw at the inner apical angle, 2nd joint 
slender, a little curved, subelliptic (5). 
Head broad : clypeus narrowed : eyes moderate, very remote, promi- 
nent and ovate : ocelli 3, forming a triangle on the crown. Thorax 
narrower than the head, obconic-truncate : collar forming a lunate 
scale : alitrunk very short and nearly vertical. Abdomen long 
slender and cylindric, the apical processes very short and varying 
greatly in form ; male furnished with 2 short remote horny lobes 
above, and a furcate one on each side below (6 ^J) ; female with 2 
short teeth and 2 filiform processes beloiv (6 $ ). Wings erect in 
repose, very similar, membranaceous, elongate-ovate, most of the 
cells quadrangular : stigma small and rhomboidal. Legs rather 
short, slender, tapering, anterior the shortest: thighs ivith two 
rows of spiny bristles beneath: tibiae with a double series of spread- 
ing spiny bristles on each side, the anterior pectinated inside towards 
the apex : tarsi triarticulate, basal joint very short, 3rd the longest 
in the anterior, in the others the 2nd and 3rd are equal: claws long 
narrow and bifid at the apex. Obs. the dissections are from A. minium. 

RuBELLUM V. Lind., — Curt. Guide, Gen. 733, 7. 

Male : head and thorax dull aeneous, underside face and legs 
ochreous : abdomen red : wings slightly tinted with yellow, 
stigma fuscous-ochre. Female : abdomen seneous, 3 basal and 
2 apical joints rufous. Var. bright ferruginous, ochreous be- 
neath ; crown of head, clypeus, disc of collar, a broad line 
down the thorax and a fine one on each side purplish-black ; 
abdomen of same colour, except the 2 first joints, and the base 
of the 3rd, on which there is a broken dorsal line of 4 black 
spots and a ring; base of all the other segments with an ochreous 
ring interrupted at the centre : nervures sometimes reddish : a 
black dot at the apex of the thighs, a streak outside the tibiae 
and tips of tarsi and of claws black. 



I 

These elegant and beautiful insects, which are distinguished 
from cognate genera by their rhomboidal stigma, are abun- 
dant in June and July in marshes, the sides of rivers, ponds, 
ditches, hedges, &c., where they fly about sedges, reeds, 
rushes, and other aquatic plants, on which they often settle. 
The French have given them the trivial name of Demoiselle, 
but with us they bear the formidableappellation of Dragon-flies, 
which they in some measure deserve, as, like the rest of the 
Libellulid£E, they feed upon other insects, both in the larva 
and imago states. It will be seen by the following list, that 
there are many species, the sexes of which not only differ, 
but from some cause or other individuals vary so much in 
colour, that it is a difficult task sometimes to determine to 
which species a variety belongs, and 1 think it not improbable I 
that some of these may be hybrids. The caudal appendages 
of the males vary so greatly, that Charpentier thinks they will i. 
supply good specific characters. 

1. Platypoda Van. Lmd. — ScJtccff. Icon. t.A^S.f. 1./9. — Corea 
Lea. — lacteum Char p. 
This species has the 4? hinder tibiae dilated : it is found in 

Norfolk, the New Forest, and in Devonshire. 

2. Chloridion Charp. Hot. Ent. p. 14 'i—Schcef. t. 121./. 4 
c?./. 5 ? . — Mesel. v. 2. t. 11. f. 6. 
June, Lincolnshire, on the authority of the "Illustrations." 

3. fulvipes Step. — June, Coomb Wood. 

4. rufescens Lea. — This and the following species, excepting 
Nos. 10. & 15. have been found in the vicinity of London. 

5. minium Harris^ Expo. t. 29. Jl 2 S - f- ^ ?. — Charp. — 
sanguineum Van. L. — Schcef. t. 116./ 1 S ■ 

6. annulare Zi^a. 7. i\ixcQ.\.\xn\ Charp. p. 18. 

8. hastulatum Charp. p. 20? — Schayf. t. 120. f. 5 (S.f. 6 ?. 
Is a var. of the next according to Vander Linden. 

9. Puella Lhm. — Roesel. 2. iab. 11. f. 7 S- — Schaf. t. 117. 
/. 1 %.— Harris, Expo. t. 29. /. 4 (?./. 3 ? ? 

10. pulchellum Van. L. — Schcef. t. 120. f. 4^ ?. 
June, Cosmore Common, near Glanville's Wootton, Mr. 

Dale. 

11. zonatum Leach. 12. xanthopterum 5/^?. 

13. elegans Van. L. 14. ezonatum Ste. 

15.rubellumFaw./v. — CurLB.E.pL732 ? .var. — ruf\pesDale. 
Taken by Air. Dale on Parley Heath in July and August : 
the specimen figured appears to be a fine variety of Vander 
Linden's insect, and I believe it is the true rnjipes of Dale. 

Illecehrnm verticillatum, Whorled Knott-grass, from speci- 
mens collected in bogs near the Land's End by Mr. William 
Branch, was communicated by J. Janson, Esq. 



JOS 




-^:- l^y <J. t^-.\^-..^<y^'. /.■fb'<!ii 



708. 
EPHEMERA COGNATA. 

The large May-fly. 



Order Neuroptera. Fam. Ephenieridae. 

Type of the Genus, Ephemera vulgata, Linn. 
Ephemera Linn., Fab. 

Antenna very short, inserted in large cavities in front of the face (1* 
a), triarticulate, basal joint the thickest, 2nd stout and oblong, 
3rd a long seta somewhat fusiform at the base, the apex subovate 

Tropin imperfect, soft and filled with fluid. 

Maxilla each forming a compressed, elongated, sublinear lobe, 

rounded at the apex (4). Palpi larger, triarticulate ? basal joint 

large, 2nd and 3rd small subglobose (p). 

Mentum short, dilated anteriorly. Palpi ? forming 2 large, fin- 

like lobes (5). 
Head rather broad and short : eyes large and remote in both sexes : 
ocelli 3, forming a triangle in front of the head (l*o), remote, 2 very 
large, the lower one smaller {l"^ front vieiv of head). Thorax very 
long and narrow, oval : scutel rather small and gibbose. Abdomen 
long and sublinear, the apex furnished with 3 very long slender fila- 
ments, composed of numerous joints (7 f), the central one a little 
the shortest in the male, in which sex there is also a pair of curved 
triarticulate appendages, the 2 apical joints small and subovate (c). 
Wings erect in repose, reticulated with nervures ; superior ample, 
elongate -trig onate ; inferior small and oval. Legs short, the ante- 
rior very long in the males (8): thighs short and compressed: 
tibiae short and attenuated, anterior very long and slender in the 
males as well as the tarsi, which are 5 -jointed, basal joint very short, 
2nd very long, the following slightly decreasing , the 4 first joints 
are very short in the other tarsi : claws, anterior forming 2 equal 
lobes, the others with one large lobe and one claw, notched at the 
apex (t, a hind leg). 
Metamorphoses quadruple. Larvae with 6 feet, 12 lateral lobes, and 
3 setaceous ciliated tails. Pseudimago similar inform to the per- 
fect insect. 

CoGNATA Step. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 734. 2. 

Head and thorax piceous, with several yellow spots on the 
latter, formed by membrane ; sides of the collar orange, with 2 
yellow stripes behind them : abdomen ochreous, with a dark 
waved line down each side, and 2 long piceous spots on each 
of the 2 or 3 terminal segments, the edges of all yellowish- 
white : wings transparent, stained greenish-yellow, with 3 
fuscous spots on the disc and 1 near the base ; nervures pi- 
ceous : legs yellowish, all the articulations with piceous spots 
at the apex. 



The Ephemerae are the true May-flies of anglers, no less 
celebrated as a bait for trout, than they are for the shortness 
of their lives; yet short as the natural term of their existence 
is, myriads are swept away and devoured by the rising fish 
before they have escaped from the water which gave them 
birth. The importance of these insects in the oeconomy of 
nature is manifest by the immense quantities that are pro- 
duced, and without them many species of fishes would become 
extinct. The multitudes of eggs that are deposited by the E. 
vulgata must be incalculable, for a very small proportion only 
of the whole can be hatched ; then the larvae living at the bot- 
tom of the water become a ground bait for fishes, and the prey 
of predaceous insects in all their stages. The pupa, if it be per- 
mitted to rise to the surface, must there remain until the fly 
in its first winged state or Pseud-imago, has time to burst from 
its shroud, when its soft and heavy wings render its progress 
to the shore slow and uncertain ; there it alights on a blade of 
grass or some plant, and casts off its skin again, as related in 
folio 484, and then it becomes the beautiful fly, which notwith^ 
standing the myriads that have been destroyed, we still see in 
myriads undulating over rivers and their banks, in the morn- 
ings and evenings of calm and fine days in the months of May 
and June, again to contribute to the support of the finny 
tribes. 

I am convinced it would well reward any one living in the 
Lake districts to study this family and the Phryganidae, for I 
have never visited either Scotland or Ireland without finding 
new and interesting species, especially of the latter order, 
which swarms even on the steam-boats ; and the valuable and 
talented memoir of Mons. Pictet proves what may be done 
by steady attention to a subject in a favourable locality. In 
North America, again, a vast and magnificent field must re- 
main to be explored by some zealous and fortunate lover of 
these tribes, it is to be hoped at no distant period. 

Having obtained living specimens of the Ephemera, I was 
able to detect some rudimentary trophi, which seem to com- 
prise 2 large palpi with 2 lobes below them and a dilated la- 
bium with 2 divaricating lobes. Imperfect as these oral organs 
are, I think they are an additional proof of the affinity of the 
perfect Ephemeridae with the Phryganidae, nearly related as 
they are in their larva state to the Libellulidse. 

I found both E. vulgata and cognata in the greatest profu- 
sion on the banks of the river at Oxford the beginning of 
June, and I am doubtful whether the latter is distinct. Our 
figure represents the female a little larger than life ; the male 
is much smaller and darker. 

The plant is Callilriche aquadca, Star-grass. 



Vci^ 




<p f 



'-./'.-/'y C_/- £j.A/tri:/a^ 



484. 

BAETIS DISPAR. 

The dissimilar May-fly. 

Order Neuroptera. Fam. Ephemeridae. 

Type of the Genus, Baetis dispar Curt. 

Baetis Leach, Sam., Curt. — Ephemera Linn., Fab. 

Antennce inserted in 2 cavities in front of the face (1* a), short 
setiform and triarticulate, basal joint veiy short and cup-shaped, 
2nd ovate, 3rd forming a coriaceous seta (1). 
Trophi none ? 

Head transverse, hemispherical : eyes large, meeting on the crown 
of the head in the male (1*, front view), remote in the female : 
ocelU large, 3 in triangle, placed before the eyes, the lateral ones 
elevated (o) : clypeus very large, coriaceous, somewhat semicircular, 
carinated down the middle and very deeply notched at the centre 
(c). Thorax ovate. Abdomen rather short and termifiated by 2 
seta (6 and 7 f) ; attenuated in the male with two 4-jointed appen- 
dages (7 c, being a portion of the underside) ; the female fur^iished 
with a single process ; (6 the apex in profile). Wings 4, mostly 
thickly reticulated, superior long and narroio ; inferior small and 
subovate. Legs, anterior inserted close to the head, very long in the 
male (8), the others short : thighs compressed : tibiae simple ; tarsi 
5-jointed, anterior much longer than the tibia in the male (8), the 
basal joint much shorter than the Ind or 3rd, which are very long, 
4th longer than the Isf, 5th about the same length, the joints nearly 
of equal length in the female, the 4th a Utile the shortest ; the other 
tarsi are rather short and alike, the terminal joint being as long as 
the basal one, the 4th minute (f tibia and tarsus of hind leg) : chvws, 
one horny curved and acute, the other an ovate and fieshy lobe like a 
pulvillus (c, terminal joint of tarsus and claws). 

Obs. The dissections are from B. dispar. 

Metamorphosis quadruple. 

Larvae and Pupae with 6 feet, 12 external lobes and 3 broad short tails. 
Roesel (v. 2, tab. 12, f 3 and 4) : Pseud-imago similar to the j)er- 
fect insect. 

Dispar Curt. Guide, Gen. 735. 2. 

Pale castaneous, eyes and disc of thorax sometimes much darker 
in the male ; segments of the abdomen with the margins brown, 
filaments more than twice as long as the insect ; tibiae, except- 
ing the anterior pair, ochreous towards the apex, tarsi fuscous : 
wings transparent, superior pale yellow at the base in the male, 
as well as the costal margin, which is pale brown towards the 
apex, nervures of the same colour. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale and the Author. 



The habits and oeconomy of the Baetes are similar to the 
Ephemerae, from which they are distinguished by having only 



2 filaments at the apex of the abdomen, and from Cloeon by 
havincr 4 wings. They may be advantageously formed into 
two sections : 1st, those with wings very much reticulated ; 
2nd, having very few transverse nervures, and these have the 
wings ciliated in the Pseud-imago. 

Latreille and Leach describe the tarsi as 4-jointed, but 
they are distinctly composed of 5 joints, and their singular 
form as well as that of the claws is worthy of notice. 

This probably is an extensive family, and for a list of the 
species I must refer to the Guide, and for the descriptions of 
some new ones to the Lond. and Edin. Phil. Mag. 

As Linnaeus in his description of E. hioculata says nothing 
of the number of the wings, it may not be a Baetis ; and as I 
suspect his E. striata is the Pseud-imago of another species, 
I have thought it better to adopt the one figured as the type. 

B. di.^par Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 484'. c?. 

I have named this insect dispar from the little resemblance 
that exists between the Pseud-imago and the perfect fly ; the 
wings in the former have all the nervures suffused with fuscous 
and the costa is not darker than the rest of the wing. 

On the 4th of June I found the Pseud-imago on White- 
thorns near Ambleside, and on the following day I saw the 
operation of shooting its skin : the thorax swelled and first 
burst through, then by drawing up its body, it kept forcing 
itself out, and being exhausted it lay dov^^n for a short period, 
having the appearance of a Nympha, it then turned upon its 
back, began struggling, soon gained its legs and walked on to 
the gauze that covered the top of the box. 

The Plant figured is a species of Chara, new to Great 
Britain, which differs from C. gracilis in its much smaller size 
and in the denser and more tuft-like arrangement of the 
branches. This addition to our Flora was pointed out to me 
by Professor Henslow, in Bottisham-fen, during an excursion *, 
and Professor Agardh, of Lund, who was present, pronounced 
it to be his Nitella hyalina, the specific characters of which 
we quote from his Systema Algarum: "Caule hyalino setaceo, 
fructibus ad nodos in glomerulum congestis." This species, 
from its great transparency and the comparative size of the 
detached globules floating in the fluid contained in the stem, 
is admirably calculated for exhibiting the circulation so con- 
spicuous in this genus. 

* This very agreeable excursion was proposed and conducted by Professor Hens- 
low with his accustomed kindness and liberality: it took place after the Meeting 
at Cambridge of the Association for the Advancement of Science, and I am happy 
in this opportunity of recording the pleasant day I spent with him on that occasion. 



6g0 




696. 

PANORPA GERMANICA var 

The lesser spotted Scorpion-fly. 



Order Neuroptera. Fam. Panorpidae. 

Type of the Genus, Panorpa communis Linn. 
Panorpa Linn., Fab., Lat., Curt. 

Antenna inserted near the base of the rostrum, approximating, 
almost as long as the body, slender, filiform, pubescent, com- 
posed of numerous oblong joints, 1st the stoutest, 2nd the 
shortest, 3rd the longest, the remainder decreasing in length to 
the apex (1, the base). 

Trophi attached to the apex of the rostrum (1*). 
Labrum oblong, margined, rounded and pubescent (2). 
Mandibles elongated, linear, terminated by 2 curved claws, inner 
one the smallest (3). 

Maxillcc terminated by 2 long hairy lobes, a little curved and 
rounded at the apex. Palpi longish, slightly pilose and 5- 
jointed, 2 basal joints oblong, the following a little stouter, 3rd 
and 4th elongate obconic, truncated, 5th subconical at the 
apex (4). 

Mentum elongated, sides dilated and convex before the apex. 
Labium oblong, a little narrowed at the base. Palpi much 
shorter than the maxillary, triarticulate ? 2 basal joints pu- 
bescent internally, 3rd curved a little, the apex ovate (5). 
Head small, transverse-ovate : rostrum long stout tapering and ver- 
tical : eyes lateral prominent and oval : ocelli Z, forming a triangle 
in front of the head (1* the face, S;c.). Thorax oval, a little broader 
than the head, ivith a deep suture across the middle ; collar short : 
scutel and postscutel transverse-ovate. Abdomen suhcylindric at 
the base, 8-jointed, the apex recurved in the males (7), 6th and llh 
joints subcampanulate , 8th dilated, ovate and armed with lateral for- 
ceps (7*) ; tapering in the female, the apex ovate -truncate and 
furnished with 2 divaricating filaments, apparently triarticulate and 
hairy (6). Wings alike, reticulated, long, narrowed at the base, the 
apex rounded ; defiexed in repose, the inferior covered, these are <t 
little shorter than the superior ; longitudinal nervures nv^nerous, as 
well as the transverse ones towards the apex. Legs long but slender, 
hinder the longest : coxae long : thighs li7iear : tibiae slender, ivith 
fine long spurs at the apex : tarsi a little shorter, 5 -jointed, basal 
joint long : claws curved, with long teeth beneath : pulvilli spongy 
(8, a fore foot). 

Germanica Linn. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 737. 3. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



Common and conspicuous as these msects are, nothing is 
known of their metamorphoses ; tliis is very remarkable, and 
it leaves one to imagine that their early stages are passed under 
ground. I cannot think the larvae are aquatic; it is more pro- 



hable that they inhabit the trunks of trees like many other 
Neuroptera. 

The perfect insects are saitl to live upon Diptera, and the 
two first species are found in woods, hedges, meadows, and 
gardens, in May and June. 

The rostrum is formed by the union of the elongated bases 
of the trophi, and the singular structure of the tail in the males 
has caused them to be called Scorpion flies. 

As there are innumerable varieties of these insects, I think 
it is very probable they may all belong to one species; I shall 
however give the essential characters of the types found in 
Britain. 

1. communis Linn. — Don. 6. 201. ? . — Zool. Misc. 2. t. 95. f. 1. 
Blackish ; rostrum, crown of head, and 3 terminal joints of 
abdomen ferruginous, 4 spots down the thorax and legs 
ochreous; wings with a fascia beyond the middle, the apex 
and a few spots towards the base brown : expanse 1 inch and 
upwards. 

2. affinis Lea. Zool. Misc. 95. 2. — communis Don. 6. 201. c?. 
Similar to No. 1. : wings spotted with brown ; instead of the 
fascia there are 3 spots, and the apex is margined and spot- 
ted below. 

3. apicalis Ste. III. 6. 52. 3. 

Black, wings hyaline, the apex and nervures fuscous, legs 
piceous: expanse 9 to 10 lines. 
June, Darent Wood. 

4. borealis LeacJi^ MSS. 

Black; rostrum, apex of abdomen and legs piceous; wings 
hyaline, stigma and nervures fuscous. 

In the British Museum: it was found by Dr. Leach near 
Edinburgh. 

5. germanica Li}in. — Qui. Brit. Efit. pi. 696. (?. var. 
Ochreous, finely pubescent, head ferruginous, face black, 
excepting the 2 cavities in which the antenna; are inserted : 
antennae piceous, basal joint ferruginous : thorax greyish- 
black with abroad ochreous stripe down the middle, as well 
as a spot on each side before the wings : abdomen greyish 
black, 3 terminal joints ferruginous, a line down each side 
of the others, and the edges of the segments ochreous: wings 
iridescent, nervures brown, transverse ones pale: stigma 
yellow, with a (juadrate fuscous spot, a small faint fuscous 
cloud below each, a lew smaller ones on the disc of the su- 
perior, and a lunulate one at the apex : tips of tarsi piceous. 
Obs. The spots are often much stronger than in the variety 

figured and described. 

Beginning of September in damp woods, Glanville's Woot- 
ton, Mr. Dale; also in the New Forest and Cumberland in 
June and July. 

The Plant is Malva rotunJifclia, Dwarf Mallow. 



i 



lie 




y 



3CL J 




Jar 



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■■/y U:iii-,A. J'unJ^n. IIL, 



118. 
BOREUS HYEMALIS. 



Order Neuroptera. Fam. Panorpidae Lat., Lcac/i. 

Type of the Genus Panorpa hyemalis Linn. 

BoREUS Cuvier, Lat, — Panorpa Linn., Fab., Panz. 

AntennoE approximating, inserted in large deep foveolae, long, 
filiform, pubescent, composed of upwards of 20 joints, basal joint 
large transverse, 2nd robust clavate (fig. 1), the 10 following 
elongated, fne remainder sub-ovate, terminal joint conic. 
Lahrum produced into a rostrum, horny, apex membranous, 
rounded and densely ciliated (2 the apex). 
Ma}idibles naked, elongated, nearly linear, truncated obliquely at 
the apex, and furnished with 7 or 8 small sharp teeth (3 and 3 a). 
MaxillcE horny, elongated, united, forming the underside of the 
rostrum (4)j the apex membranous, pubescent, narrow, with 
the internal angle produced (4 a) : Palpi inserted near the apex 
of maxillse, long, 4-jointed, 3 first joints nearly equal, 4th elon- 
gate conic (4). 

Mentum scutiform, horny, received between and divided from 
the maxillse by a suture. Lip short. Palpi terminal, short, biar- 
ticulate, basal joint transverse, 2nd slender conic (5). 
Rostrum longer than the head, nutant. Head nearly vertical. Eyes 
large lateral. Ocelli none. Thorax long, 1 st segment large, un- 
even, the 2 following producing short, recumbent, subulated wings in 
the males ; and 2 fleshy scales and 2 appendages in the females. Ab- 
domen robust, cylindric, simple in the males ; composed of 8 joints 
in the females, and terminated by cm ovipositor composed of an upper 
valve horny, hollow, acute, 3-jointed, and an under valve dilated bi- 
lobed, shorter than the other, coriaceous and rough towards the apex 
(7). Legs simple, hinder pair the longest. Tibia ivith a minute spur. 
Tarsi 5 -jointed. Claw simple dilated at the base. Pulvilli no7ie. 



Hyemalis Li^m. Syst. Nat. t. I. pars 2. p. 915. n. 3. — Fab. Ent. Syst. 
t. 2. p. 98. n. 5. — Le Regne Animal, v. 3. p. 433. 
Female, bronzed smooth shining. Head and eyes black the former 
bronzed ; rostrum ochvaceous, brown at the apex. Thorax fuscous 
ochre, anterior segment the darkest. Abdomen dark bronzed 
with green and reddish purple. Ovipositor ochre sometimes 
black at the apex. Legs and antennce pale fuscous ochre, last 
joint of tarsi black, terminal portion of antennae black also. 
Male. Wings 4, half the length of the abdomen, fuscous, apex 
incurved, ciliated. Linn. 

In the Cabinets of the British Museum, Mr. Walker, and the Author. 



The learned authors of the Introduction to Entomology have 
most justly observed that " of all the Linnean Orders this 
(Neuroptera) appears to consist of the most discordant tribes; 
so that it seems next to impossible to construct a definition 
that will include them all :" of the truth of which remark there 
cannot be a more convincing proof than the genus before us, 
when compared with the Libellulidae for example, or even the 
Filicornes to which section it belongs, and the want of ocelli and 
reticulated wings excludes it at present even from the family 
in which it must be included, for the contour of the head and 
the structure of the trophi prove beyond a doubt its affinity to 
Panorpay although the ovipositor with which the females are 
furnished, is different to every thing we can recollect to have 
seen in any of the Orders, unless it be that of the genus 
Psylla; it is we apprehend, like the appendages o^Blatta, em- 
ployed for carrying the eggs as well as for depositing them, 
for it has no oviduct, and the 2 valves open vertically instead 
of laterally, as in Orthoptera and Hymenoptera. The man- 
dibles it will be seen are serrated, and not bifid as described 
by Panzer, and the stalks of the maxillae unite and form a base 
for the mentum. 

Dr. Leach first added this curious insect to our Fauna by 
detecting a single specimen at Costessey in Norfolk in the 
month of December ; and last November and January, Mr. 
Henry and Mr. Francis Walker found 4< or 5 specimens se- 
creted in the moss in a plantation at Southgate ; and it is to 
their handsome contribution of specimens that I have the op- 
portunity of presenting my readers with dissections and an ac- 
count of this extraordinary genus. It is remarkable that all 
the specimens hitherto taken in this country have been fe- 
males, and I have not been able to find even a foreign speci- 
men of the other sex in our cabinets, which I very much re- 
gret ; they probably may appear earlier than November, and 
may not reside in the moss as the females do. B. hijemalis 
occurs in Sweden and Germany during the winter, and upon 
the Alps amongst the snow. 

Hypnum velutinum (VelvetFeather-moss), the plant figured, 
is a little magnified. 



^ 



■520 




520. 
CHRYSOPA ABBREVIATA. 

The short-winged Golden-eye. 

Order Neuroptera. Fam. Hemerobidae. 

Tyjie of the Genus, Hemerobius Perla Linn. 
Chrysopa Leach, Sam., Curt. — Hemerobius Linn., Fab. 

Antenna inserted in front of the head between the eyes, filiform, 
pubescent, as long as the body, composed of numerous oblong 
joints, basal joint the largest, 2nd somewhat chalice-shaped, 
3rd longer than the following, a little attenuated, the remainder 
gradually decreasing in size to the apical joint which is some- 
what conical (1, a portion of the base). 

Labrum transverse, the edges membranous, notched in the 
middle, the anterior margin densely ciliated (2). 
Mandibles elongate-trigonate, curved and acute at the apex, 
with a small tooth below on the inside, having a small portion 
of the margin pubescent (3). 

Maxillce formed of 2 very pubescent lobes, the internal one 
ovate, the other more quadrate. Palpi long hairy and 5-jointed, 
2 basal joints small, 3rd long, 4th a little shorter and clavate, 
5th the longest, a little dilated at the middle and rounded ob- 
liquely at the apex (4). 

Mentmn subquadrate. Lip larger, orbicular and pubescent. 
Palpi considerably longer than the lip, triarticulate, basal joint 
short, obovate, 2nd longer, 3rd considerably longer, dilated at 
the middle and rounded obliquely (5). 
Head short : eyes lateral, very globose brilliant and prominent : ocelli 
none. Thorax elongated, the prothorax forming a neck as long as 
the head. Wings very much deflexed in repose, smooth, generally 
long and narrow, subelliptical, very much reticulated and iridescent. 
Abdomen short, linear in the male, more dilated and truncated in the 
female. Legs very short and slender, posterior the longest : tibise 
simple : tarsi short and 5-jointed, basal joint a little the longest, 3 
following very short, 5th nearly as long as the 1st: claws airved, acute, 
dilated at the base : pulvilli rounded (8 apex of tibia and tarsus of 
fore leg). 
Eggs pedunculated. 

Larvae active, furnished with antennce long mandibles and palpi, having 
^-pectoral legs, and clavate bristly tubercles on each side the thorax 
and abdomen. Pupae inclosed in a cocoon. 

Abbreviata Curt. Guide, Gen. 739. 3*^. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale, Mr. Paget, and the Author. 

These beautiful insects, with their splendid eyes and exquisite 
gauze-like vyings, are nearly alUed to the Ant-Lions, and from 
their preying in the larva state upon plant lice, they have been 
termed by Reaumur the Aphis-Lion. The perfect insect is 
short-lived, flies heavily and generally by night, and the scent 
of it is very offensive. 



There are few persons who have not been attracted by the 
wonderfully brilliant eyes of these insects, which are, when 
alive, like the head of a highly polished gold pin ; and their 
green wings reflect the most lovely rose-colour and blue. The 
larvae are very curious animals, and are well represented 
in the 6Gth Plate of Sovverby's Brit. Mis., and also in the 3rd 
vol. of Reaumur: they are most singularly formed, and their 
appearance is rendered more grotesque by their bodies being 
covered with the skins of their victims, the Aphides, on which 
they live ; and by this means they render themselves almost 
invisible amongst the Lichen on the trunks of trees where they 
resort. Their eggs are not less worthy of notice, being pro- 
tected from the attacks of parasitic and other insects by being 
attached to the end of a long stiff filament, the base of which 
is fastened to a leaf, as represented in our Plate. 

The following species have been detected in Britain, ana 
they are all found in June, July, and August. 

1. fulvocephala Sam. — fulviceps Stej). Considerably like the following in 

colour, but the wings are longei", the nervures lighter, and the costa is 
not brown at the apex. 

2. capitata Fah. Fuscous, head orange, wings iridescent, nervures and 

stigma brown ; legs pale testaceous. 

3. reticulata Lea. — Scheef. Icon. tab. 5./. 7 Sf 8. — chrysops Linn. Green, 

head and thorax spotted with black, sides of abdomen and most of the 
transverse nervures of the wings black. 

Always found in woods in June; New Forest, Coomb and 
Darent-woods. 

S"". ventralis Curt. Pale or yellowish green ; antennas fuscous at the apex, 
with a black dot between the basal joints, another before each eye, 2 
on the back and 2 on each side of the prothorax, and 2 between the 
anterior wings ; underside of the abdomen piceous, except at the apex : 
wings with short and pale pubescence, and a few of the nervures par- 
tially piceous. 

3*. abbreviata Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. .520. S . Bright green, wings compara- 
tively short and ovate, beautifully ornamented with blue and rose 
colour, the stigma and nervures bright green, producing distinct black 
hairs ; tarsi and antenuje dull ochre, with a black dot on the upper side 
of the basal joint of the latter, and another between them, 2 others on 
the crown and a curved black line at the base, a black dot at the base 
of each wing, and the hairs on the abdomen of the same colour. 
Taken by Mr. Dale on the sand hills at Appledore and 

Ravenglass, and on the Marrams near Yarmouth, by Mr. C. 

J. Paget, in June. 

4. alba Linn. — Panz. 87. 14.? "White, eyes brassy-green. Like C. Perla, 

but smaller." 

5. afhnis Lea. — Roesel. tab. 21./. 5.? Is considerably smaller than the fol- 

lowing, I believe. 

6. Perla Linn.— Scheef. Icon. tab. 9. f. 2. ^- 3.t—Pa7iz. 87. 13.?— Z)ow. 8. 

277. 2.? " Yellowish green, wings hyaline with green veins." 
Common in gardens, orchards, &c. 

The Plant is Elijmiis arenarius (Upright Sea Lime-grass), 
communicated by Jas. Paget, Esq., from Caistor, Norfolk. 







(9^jycf€.,^ d>i^. ^- fSis 



202. 
HEMEROBIUS FIMBRIATUS. 



Order Neuroptera. Fam. Hemerobiadae Leach. 
Hemerobini Lat. 

Type of the Genus Hemerobius hirtus Linn. 

Hemerobius Linn., Geoff., DeGeer, Fab., Oliv., Lat., Leach, Stew., 
Turt., Sam. 

AntenncE inserted between the eyes, on the crown of the head, 
moniliform, pubescent, nearly as long as the body, composed of 
numerous obovate joints, basal joint the largest, 2nd larger than 
the remainder which decrease in length to the apex, where they 
become transverse (fig. 1). 
Trophi membranous. 

Labrum rather broader than long, angles rounded, slightly ci- 
liated (2). 

Mandibles small, subtrigonate, bent acute, one denticulated 
below the centre, the other angulated at the middle (3). 
Maxilla terminated by 2 lobes, nearly equal in size, very pu- 
bescent at the apex, the external one articulated, extending 
beyond the internal one, which is horny at the margin and apex. 
Palpi rather long, 5 -jointed, basal joint robust, 2nd short, 3rd 
and 4th longer of nearly equal length, 5th the longest, subfusi- 
form, thickened externally, the inner edge thin (4). 
Mentum dilated at the base, rounded anteriorly. Labium fleshy, 
rather long, rounded and pubescent. Palpi nearly as large as 
the maxillary, arising from scapes, 3-jointed, basal joint not 
short, 3rd nearly as long as the 2 first, subfusiform, thickened 
on the outer, membranous on the inner side (5). 
Head short, transverse. Eyes small, lateral, prominent. Ocelli none. 
Thorax not broader than the head, the prothorax sometimes narrower. 
Abdomen slender. Wings 4, vertj much deflexed when at rest, longer 
than the abdomen, pubescent, the nervures very numerous especially 
in the superior wings and producing hairs. Legs slender. Tibiae 
simple. Tarsi 5 -jointed, basal joint the longest, 4th the shortest. 
Claws minute, simple. Pulvilli small (8, afore leg). 



FlMBRIATUS Nob. 

Piceous, pilose. Antennae with the 1st and 2nd joints dull 
ochreous. Thorax with an ochraceous line down the middle and 
a spot on each side of the same colour, mesothorax variegated 
with ochre : the base of the abdomen subferruginous. Wings 
tinged with ochre, iridescent, ciliated: superior spotted with 
fuscous, the nervures spotted with brown ; inferior with an in- 
terrupted fuscous fimbria, across which the nervures are dark 
brown, as well as upon a narrow space of the disc. Legs dull 
ochre, thighs inclining to piceous, the posterior as well as the 
base of their tibiae piceous ; apex of tarsi piceous also. 
In the Cabinets of the British Museum and Mr. Dale. 



The Hemerobiadae are no less remarkable for their beautifully 
reticulated wings and pedicled eggs, than for their singular 
appearance and valuable qualities in the larva state, during 
which period of their existence they live upon Aj^/iides {plant- 
lice), and in conjunction with the larvae of the Coccmellce 
(lady-birds); and some of the Syrphidae are of the utmost im- 
portance to the hop-grower, by assisting to free him from one 
of his greatest enemies. Our readers will be much gratified 
by consulting the 3rd volume of Reaumur, who gives figures 
of the larvae, &c. on the 32nd plate, and the 1st volume of 
Kirby and Spence, where their extraordinary habits are 
amusingly related. 

We have seen ten or twelve undescribed British species, 
besides the following, which have been recorded by the authors 
whose names are attached to them ; those which have been 
noticed in the Entomologisf s Useful Compendium are preserved 
in the British Museum. 

1. H. phalaenoides Linn. — Panz. 87. 15. The only indige- 

nous specimen I have seen of this fine insect, was 
taken last June near I^anark, Scotland, by Mr. H. 
Walker. 

2. Beckwithii Sam. — June to August, Woods, &c. 

3. variegatus Fab. — June, July, and August, upon grass 

and alders, Ambleside, Glanville's Wootton Dorset, 
and the Ochill Hills near Stirling. 

4. obscurus Sain. — June to August. Hedges and Woods. 

5. fasciatus Fah. 

6. nervosus Fab. — June. Hedges and Woods. 

7. hirtus Linn.'— Don. 4. 113. — June and July upon the 

Hop and Hazel, Donovan observes, that like the 
Hemerobius [Chrysojya) Perla, it is always very brisk 
at the approach of a thunder-storm. 

8. irroratus Sam. — June. Hedges and Woods. 

9. affinis Sam. do. do. 

10. lutescens Fab. — DeG. 2. t. 22./! 8. — June, Aug., do. 

11. punctatus Tuy^t. do. do. 

12. nemoralis Sam. do. do. 

and Loch Rannoch, Perthshire. 

13. decussatus Sam. — June, Hedges and Woods, Amble- 

side ; m. Aug. Dover, and Glanville's Wootton. 

14. Pini Sam. — June, Aug. Hedges and Woods in va- 

rious parts of England, and Kinnoul and Dunkeld, 
Perthshire, Scotland. 

15. fimbriatus l^ob. — The specimen figured was found 

July 1, 1825, on the grass, at Dundingston Loch, 
near Edinburgh, by Mr. Dale ; and in the British 
Museum is another, probably from the same spot. 

16. crispus Schccf. Icon. pi. 122. f. 2. & 3. 
The plant is Betonica oJJicinaUs ( Wood Betony). 



li 



J28 




,y c /<f^/u^^ S)^.- /.m^ 



528. 
CONIOPTERYX PSOCIFORMIS. 



Order Neuroptera. Fam. Psocidae. 

Type of the Genus, Coniopteryx Tineiformis Curt. 

CONIOPTERYX Curt. 

Antenna: inserted between the eyes, as long or longer than the 
body, filiform, composed of numerous pubescent and submoni- 
liform joints, from about 20 to 40 in number, basal joint the 
stoutest, 2nd oblong, the following globose, gradually becoming 
ovate towards the apex, the terminal joint being elongate-conic 
( 1 , portions of the base and apex) . 

Labrum semicircular, slightly concave before, with 2 bristles 
on each side (2). 

Mandibles subtrigonate, apex acute with a notch on the inside 
forming a rounded shoulder (3) . 

Maxilla small, terminated by 2 curved lobes, the inner one 
linear and rigid, the other a little broader, more membranous 
and rounded at the apex. Palpi rather long and porrected, 
forming a kind of beak, and 5-jointed, first 4 joints nearly of 
equal length and stoutness, 1st oblong, 2nd 3rd and 4th obovate, 
the two latter truncated obliquely, 5th long andsublanceolate (4). 
Mentum subquadrate. Palpi triarticulate, first two joints sub- 
ovate, 3rd large ovate and compressed (5). 
Head orbicular, depressed in front ; neck distinct : eyes near the an- 
terior angles of the head, remote and ovate : ocelli undiscovered. 
Thorax gibbose and tuberculated. Abdomen short, elongate-ovate. 
Wings deflexed when at rest, rounded and poiodered, the superior 
very ample and larger than the inferior, which are sometimes very 
small; many longitudinal nervures and a few transverse ones, forming 
3 discoidal cells in each (9). Legs, anterior the shortest, posterior 
the longest : tibiae compressed, longer than the thighs, except in the 
1st pair : tarsi short slender and 5-jointed, basal joint the longest, 
2nd and 3rd obtrigonate, 4th very short and bilobed, 5th very slender 
and clavate : claws bent and acute (8, afore leg). 



'PsociFORMis Haliday's Mss. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 741*. No. 2. 

Length -f- of a line, expansion 4 lines. Dead pearly white,_ an- 
tennae twice as long as the body, composed of nearly 40 joints, 
subochreous : superior wings very ample and distinctly irides- 
cent ; inferior wings small. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Haliday and the Author. 

This group may be distinguished from Psocus by the greater 
number of joints in the antennae palpi and tarsi, by the pow- 
dered wings (from whence the name of Coniopteryx) and the 
absence of a stigma. 

For the curious Larva represented at fig. L, I am indebted 



to my friend Mr. Haliday, who says in his letter, " This larva 
is found wandering in groves from the end of August to Oc- 
tober; it is probably AphidivorouS; though this I have not 
proved, nor have I bred it, but I can entertain no doubt that 
it is the larva of C. tineiformi$. The general character is 
closely allied to the larva of Hemerobius, to which genus it 
is related." It is rosy, with a large oval blackish patch on the 
back, and large white spots down each side. 

1. C. tineiformis Curt. 

Length | of a line, expansion 2f . 

Dead pearly grey, powdered : antennas not longer than the 
body, containing about 25 joints; superior wings very ample 
(9 5), inferior small (z), abdomen ochreous. 

This insect is not uncommon in Norfolk and the New Fo- 
rest, and I have found it abundant the end of June flying out 
of a hedge in the day time in Mr. Dale's garden at Glanville's 
Wootton. Mr. Haliday says, "It occurs in groves (especially 
on Coniferffi) in summer: the colour is clear bluish white, 
but the dried specimens either fade or become rubbed. In 
the living insect the palpi are porrected and adhere together, 
forming a kind of beak. When captured they feign death, 
with their antennae bent in under the thorax, as in Hemerobius 
and Chrysopa." 

2. C. Psociformis Hal. — Curt. Brit. Ent. ipl. 528 $ ? 

This Insect I also found in Norfolk many years since, and 
Mr. Haliday took it in the same situation as the last: and 
adds, " when the deflected upper wings in repose conceal the 
lower, it resembles the former species, but it is distinguished 
by its superior size and more brilliant white colour." The na- 
tural size of the insect at rest is shown towards the lower 
part of the Plate. 

The Plant is Trifolium glomeratum (Round-headed Trefoil), 
communicated by James Paget, Esq., one of the authors of a 
*' Sketch of the Natural History of Yarmouth," an invaluable 
abstract of local information, and an admirable example, which 
I hope to see followed in e.\QYy County of the United King- 
doms. 



6.. 



/^ 








648. 
PSOCUS FENESTRx\TUS. 



Order Neuroptera. Fam. Psocidse. 

Type of the Genus, Psocus lineatus Lat. 
Psocus Lat., Fab., Coq.,Panz., Curt. — HemerobiusffH^^TermesLmw, 
Antennce inserted on each side the clypeus before the eyes, ge- 
nerally as long as the wings, subsetaceous, pilose and 13-jointed, 
basal joint stout, 2nd short, 3rd very long and slender, the fol- 
lowing decreasing in length (1, a few basal and apical joints). 
Lahrvm large, pocket- shaped, the anterior margin convex (2). 
Mandibles tYi^on?i.te, very broad at the base, the apex very acute 
with a notch beneath, one having a sharp tooth near the base (3). 
MaxillcE elongated, with a long narrow horny process notched 
at the apex (4 *), arising at the base and reaching nearly to the 
extremity of the terminal lobe, which is fleshy at the apex. 
Palpi long hairy and 4-jointed, basal joint oblong, 2nd longer 
and stouter, 3rd shorter, 4th as long as the 2nd and ovate (4). 
Mentum and Labium subquadrate, a little broadest at the base, 
a deep suture dovsTi the centre, anterior margin sinuated, the 
angles notched, with a rounded and cihated membrane behind. 
Palpi none (5). 
Head lar-ge, ovate-trigonate : eyes remote, lateral, small, globose and 
prominent : ocelli 3 in triangle on the crown (H the face). Thorax 
suborbicular . Abdomen short, soft, often ovate : o\dduct inclosed 
between 2 valves. Wings deflexed in repose, superior much longer 
than the animal, very ample, with a trigonate stigma, one furcate 
nervure and 3 distinct cells at the posterior margin (9) : inferior 
smaller ivith one large and one small furcate nervure. Legs slender ; 
thighs slightly thickened : tibiae slender, hinder the longest : tarsi 
short, biarticulate, basal joint a little the longest, especially in the 
hinder pair : claws curved and acute (8, afore leg). 
Larvse apterous. Vwpdd ivith rudimentary wings. 



Fenestratus Curt. Guide, Gen. 742. 1. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale and the Author. 



The genus Psocus bears considerable resemblance to the 
Aphides, but the mandibulate mouth and the neuration of the 
wings at once distinguish it, and as the disposition of the ner- 
vures is sufficient to characterize two groups, I shall propose 
the name of Ccccilius for the second. 

The Psoci are found upon the bark of trees, paling, walls, 
and under stones, and in all probability they and their larvae 
teed upon the minute animals that live amongst the Lichen 
and Mosses that grow in such situations. 



1. Psocus: superior wi'ngs "with a long and short furcate ?ier- 
vure, having '\; perfect cells on the posterior margin {Jig. 9), 

1. pilicornis Lat^ — Coq. tab. 2.f. 12. June, New Forest. 

3. fasciatus Fab. — Panz. 94. 20. May, June, July, paling 
and trunks of trees. Coomb Wood and Glanville's Wootton. 

4. variegatus Lat. — Coq.f. 13. End of July, Castle Connel ; 
August, on Birch-trees, Loch Fad. 

5. lineatus hat. — Coq. f. 8. End of July, Coomb Wood; 
August, Glanville's Wootton. 

8. bifasciatus hat.— Coq.f. 4. August, Isle of Bute. 
10. longicornis Fab. — Panz. 94'. 19. 

16. bipunctatus hinn. — Panz. 94. 21. — Coq.f. 3. 

17. sexpunctatus hinn. — Coq.f. 10^11. 

18. Morio hat. — Coq.f 5. July, trunks of Lime-trees, Thet* 
ford. 

19. 4-maculatus hat. Coq.f 6. Sfl. 

21. 4-punctatus 2^a6. — Panz. 94. 22. — Coq.f. 9. May, on 
Holly-trees. 

22. fuscopterus hat. — Coq.f 2. 

24. abdominalis Fab. — pedicularius hat. — Coq.f 1 . 

2. CiEciLius : s2iperior wings with 2 short furcate Jiervurcs, 

havi?ig 3 pel feet cells o?i the posterior margin^ with a bisinuated 

nervure at the posterior angle. 

25. fenestratUS Curt. B. E. pi. 648. Antennce not so long as the 
wings ; head and thorax brown ; abdomen dull scarlet, wings richly iri- 
descent, superior brown with a semiovate transparent space on the costa, 
divided by an oblique brown stripe, also a transparent sti-ipe opposite, at 
the extremity of the interior margin ; inferior pale fuscous with a long 
transparent space on the costa : legs ochreous. 

End of June, Glanville's Wootton, Dorset. 

26. Strigosus Curt. Ochreous ; antennas not longer than the wings, 
brown, except at the base ; an elongated trigonate brown spot on the 
crown, disc of thoi-ax of the same colour ; abdomen yellow ; wings pale 
yellowish fuscous, nervures suffused with brown in the superior as well as 
the interior margin at the base : expanse 4 lines. 

September, October, on Alders, Parley Heath and Cart- 
land Craigs. 

27. irroratUS Curt. Yellow ; antennse not longer than the body; head, 
thorax, and back of abdomen spotted with brown : superior wings with 
suffused fuscous nervures and pale spots on the disc of most of the cells, 
forming a row round the posterior margin : 3-j- lines. 

28. Vltnpennis Curt. Black ; antennae as long as the wings; head very 
broad, eyes very prominent ; labrum, palpi, and sutures of thorax yellow- 
isli ; wings immaculate, nervures delicate dark brown, stigma long and 
brown, legs ochreous, tips of tibijc and tarsi brown : 44^ lines. 

End of June, Clifton, near Bristol. 

The Plant is Sedum villosuvi, Llairy Stonecrop. 



f 



<37 




V«3 



'Jy-ui'dy tJ.C^Uc £ruUn d^. / ib2^ 



37. 
RAPHIDIA OPHIOPSIS. 



OiiDEK Neuroptera. Fam. Eaphidiadffi Lat., Leach. 

Type of the Genus E. Ophiopsis lAnn. 
Kaphidia Linn., Fab., Lat., &c. 

Antenym inserted between the eyes, remote, as long as the 
thorax, nearly filiform, composed of many joints (44 in °thc male, 
42 iu the female of the type), two fii-st joints robust, last coni- 
cal. (1.) 

Labriim exserted, subquadrate, rather broader than long, anterior 
margin circular, entire. (2.) 

Mandibles corneous, strong, extending beyond the labruni, elon- 
gate, curved, acute, with two sharp teeth on the internal side. (3.) 
Maxilla short, crustaceous, bilobed, ciliated : Palpi short, filiform, 
4-jointed ; first joint short, second longer, third and foui'th of 
equal length, the latter truncated. (4.) 

Mentuni short, quadrate : PaliH short, attached to two immove- 
able articulations, 3-jointed, last joint long, truncated. (5.) 
Clypeus broad, anterior margin nearly straight. Head injlexed, oval, 
narrowed behind. Eyes prominent. Ocelli 3 in triangle. Thorax 
with the first segment very long, cylindric. Wings defiexed, nearly 
equal in size, reticulated, all the nerves hairy. Abdomen of the male 
produced at the apex with 2 strong teeth (7. tlie terminal joints vieiced 
inprqfile) : of the female terminated by 2 united canals, transversely 
striated, slightly hairy, with Uoo valves at tfie apex. (6.) 



Ophiopsis Linn. Syst. Nat. 2.916.1. Fab. Ent. Syst. v. 2. p. 99. 

M. 1. 

Black, shining. Head slightly punctured. Clypeus, base of 
anteuuse, legs, (excepting the base and upper surface of the 
thighs), 2 lines down each side of the abdomen, and a spot on 
each segment down the back straw colour. Wings slightly 
coloured. Stigma brown. 

In the Author's and other Cabinets. 



Dr. Leach has divided this extraordinary Genus into tlie follow- 
ing species — 1. E. Londinensis, 2. ajffinis, 3. maculicollis, 4. 
megacephala, and 5. Ophiopsis ; how far they may be good species 
it is not easy to determine, as they are subject to great variations, 
and the nervures of the wings are very inconstant, fi-equently not 
agreeing in the same specimen. 



R. Londinensis, as its name implies, is found in the vicinity of 
our capital, even as near as Copenhagen Fields ; it has no stigma. 
R. affinis is a smaller species, the male of which is figured in 
Kirby and Spence's Introduction to Entomology (pi. 3. f. 6.) ; 
R. maculicollis is very similar to R. Londinensis and R. jnega- 
cephala and 02^hio2)sis appear to me to be the same. 

The larvae are described by Latreille as very nimble and vora- 
cious, living upon small insects, and concealing themselves in 
crevices in the bark of trees ; the pupae, like the rest of the 
Order, have the power of locomotion. The perfect insect also 
feeds upon smaller ones, its long moveable thorax enabling it 
to seize its prey in any direction with great facility ; and it is able 
to bite with considerable force with its acute mandibles, which it 
can extend considerably. 

The ovipositor is exceedingly dissimilar to those of any other 
insects; by Latreille^s description and my own observations, it 
appears to be formed by two canals united, with a space between, 
being composed of transverse rings which enable the insect to 
propel the eggs to the apex, where they are received and deposited 
by the two appendages, in clusters like fly-blows. 

The month of June appears to be the season for all the species 
in the imago state, and they are stated to prefer the neighbour- 
hood of streams ; the specimen, however, figured in the plate, 
with two or three others, were beat out of White-thorns in rather 
high ground in the New Forest. 

The plant figured is Veronica Chamadrys (Wild Germander). 



/po 




' "^f ""'•■ " A.. /:/oy/ 



190. 
PERLA CEPHALOTES. 



Order Neuroptera. Fam. Perlidae Nob. — Perlides Lat. 

Type of the Genus Phryganea bicaudata Linn. 
Perla Geoff., Lat., Leach. — Semblis Fab., Panz. — Phryganea Li?in. 
Antenna; remote, inserted before the eyes close to the base of 
the mandibles, about the length of the body, setaceous, com- 
posed of numerous joints, basal joint large, 2nd smaller, the re- 
mainder increasing in length to the apex, being transverse to- 
wards the base, and obovate at the extremity (fig. 1). 
Labrum transverse, linear and pubescent (2). 
Mandibles small, produced internally, pilose externally, acute at 
the apex, sometimes furnished with 2 short spines (3). 
Maxilhe small, bilobed, internal lobe producing a few hairs and 
slightly notched, external much longer, narrower, and lanceolate, 
having an obscure mark of articulation at the apex. Palpi lonsj, 
subsetaceous slender and pilose, 5 -jointed, basal joint minute, 
2nd the most robust, 3rd rather the longest, 4th nearly as long, 
5th not longer than the 2nd (4). 

Mentum large, covering the underside of the head, transverse 
sublunulate. Lip subquadrate, producing a fleshy lobe at each 
of the anterior angles. Palpi not long, 3-jointed, pubescent, 
joints of nearly equal length, the basal one the most robust, ter- 
minal the slenderest (5). 
Males sometimes smaller than the females. Trophi submembranous. 
Head horizontal, transverse ovate, very much depressed. Eyes la- 
teral, not large but prominent. Ocelli 3 in triangle, hinder ones the 
largest [l a). Thorax subquadrate. Mesothorax a«(Z Metathorax 
producing 2 pair of reticulated wings, incumbent and horizontal when 
at rest, of nearly equal length, the superior being the narrowest. Ab- 
domen short, oblong-quadrate in some, the apex furnished vnth 2 
long articulated setce. Legs simple, longest in the males. Tibiae not 
spined. Tarsi 3-jointed, glandular beneath, 1st and 2nd joints mi- 
nute, 3rd long. Claws acute. Pulvilli globose {8, a fore leg). 
Obs. The dissections were taken from a male of P. marginata. 

Cephalotes Nob. 

Male brown. Head considerably broader than the thorax, a 
transverse ochraceous spot between the eyes, the base of the 
same colour j thorax transverse quadrate, rugose, with a channel 
down the middle and an elevated line on each side curved out- 
ward. Abdomen inclining to ochre at the apex. Set* not so 
long as the antennae. Wings scarcely so long as the body ; the 
inferior with 2 transverse nervures in the 4th discoidal cell. 
Female 4 times as large as the male and much broader ; abdo- 
men frequently ochraceous, wings extending to the apex of the 
setae, semitransparent, stained fuscous, rarely wanting the 2 
transverse nervures in the under wings. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale and the Author. 



3. P. cephalotes JSFob. 

4. bicaudata Linn., Fab., Panz. 71. 4. 



Thk insects of the genus now under investigation, like many 
others belonging to the same order, live in the water till they 
assume their perfect state, when they form a principal portion 
of the food of fishes, especially trouts, and are consequently 
well known to the angler. 

The following is a list of our British species. 

A. Abdomens very robust. 

1. P. grandis JVob. 

2. marginata Fab. — Panz. 71. 3. — 

flavipes Lat., Geoff. ? 

B. Abdomens slender. 

5. P. fuscipennis A^o6. I 7. P. viridis Pa6.— lutea ia^, Geoff. ? 

6. media Nob. | S. minor Nob. 

P. grandis is half as large again as the species figured, and 
has been taken I have understood near the Croydon Canal. 

P. marginata. On the 4th of June Mr. Dale and myself 
found a few specimens of this insect upon a species of fern 
near Ambleside, and a few days after I took a considerable 
number, lying three and four together concealed amongst the 
foliage of the plant figured, as well as others that grew close 
to the water's edge, also the exuviae attached to a fern. 

P. cephalotes. This species I found with the last ; and al- 
though at first sight the two may be easily confounded, our in- 
sect is distinguished by a much broader head ; the antennas 
wings and setse in the males are not longer than the body, the 
thorax is differently sculptured and transverse in the females, 
and there are with very few exceptions two transverse nervures 
on the disk of the inferior wings, which are always wanting 
, in P. marginata^ the exuvia of the latter is beautifully macu- 
lated, but in our insect it is entirely fuscous. The female 
sometimes carries a globular bundle of little black shining ejjjjs 
at the apex of her abdomen. These two insects are a favourite 
food of the trout in Cumberland, and are succeeded by the 
Bracken-clock [Anomala horticola), and that again I believe 
by the Willow-fly (P. viridis). 

P. bicaudata is known by an orange stripe down the head and 
thorax, and has been taken by Mr. Bracy Clark in Worcester- 
shire, and in June upon Battersea britlge by Mr. Haworth. 

P. fuscipennis^ larger than P. viridis, with slightly fuscous 
wings. This I took in Scotland. • 

P. media, the size of the last with yellowish wings and black 
body, — beginning of June, on Oaks, &c., Ambleside. 

P. viridis, smaller, thorax with a black margin, body pale 
with a black stripe. Beginning of June, upon Alders, New j 

Forest. — Reaumur believes figures 8, 9 and 10, pi. 14, to be I 

the larva? and their cases of a small Perla {pil. 13./ 12), which 
is probably this or a congenerous species. 

P. minor, like the last, but only half the size ; found near 
Ambleside, the beginning of June, running about in pairs, 
whicli proves they are not males oi" P. viridis. 

TruUius europceus (Globe-flower) accompanies the insect. 



5.10 




f 





J^. ^c/t|..-t.&. 'iTLA.-'f.'fiSS 



540. 

AGRYPNIA PAGETANA. 

The Yarmouth Grannom or May-fly. 

Order Trichoptera. Fam, Phryganidse. 

Type of the Genus, Agiypnia Pagetana Curt. 
Agrypnia Curt. 

Antenna as long as the body, inserted in front of the head, be- 
tween and near to the eyes, comj^osed of numerous sHghtly i)u- 
bescent joints, the basal one very robust, 2nd slightly cup-shaped, 
the remainder becoming gradually oblong (1). 
Labrmn long and tongue -shaped, the sides at the apex a little 
dilated and ciliated (2). 
Mandibles minute. 

Maxillce small, with a rounded ciliated internal lobe, and a 
pointed curved external one. Palpi long, compressed, pubes- 
cent, pilose and 5-jointed, basal joint short, 2nd and 3rd long, 
of equal length, 4th and 5th equal but a little shorter, the 
latter subelliptic (4). 

Labial palpi attached to 2 scajies, pubescent, slightly pilose and 
triarticulate, basal joint the stoutest, somewhat obconic, 2nd the 
smallest, but of similar form, 3rd the longest, elongate-ovate (5). 
Depressed : head broad, transverse-ovate (H) .• eyes lateral, prominent, 
globose and minutely granulated : ocelli 3 in triangle, remote, large 
and jjr eminent . Thorax small and suborbicular : postscutellum large 
and semiovate. Abdomen depressed, long broad and narrowed at the 
base, loith 8 distinct joints. Wings longer than the body, deflexed 
when at rest, superior narroiv and sublanceolate , but rounded at the 
apex (9) ; inferior shorter, folded in repose, both having numerous 
longitudinal nervures, especially at the apex. Legs, a7iterior the 
shortest: coxae awe? thighs, middle pair the longest : tibiae, all having 
a pair of spurs at the apex, anterior short, posterior the longest and 
a little bent, with a pair of spurs also above the apex (t f), the middle 
tibice being armed in the same manner (#) : tarsi long and 5-jointed, 
basal joint long : claws and pulvilli minute (8, afore leg). 



Pagetana Curt. MSS. — Guide, Gen. 747''. 1. 

Pale dull ochreous ; eyes and ocelli brownish ; antennae head 
and thorax a little more ferruginous, and clothed with ochreous 
hairs, the latter with an ash-coloured tint, the postscutellum 
and abdomen dull castaneous with a grey bloom, the base of the 
segments in the latter dark, the apex ochreous : tips of superior 
wings slightly fuscous ; inferior transparent iridescent, the tips 
suffused with ochre, all the nervures dark brownish ochre, ex- 
cepting a few of the basal ones in the under- wings : legs and 
underside brighter ochre. 

In Mr. Paget's Cabinet. 



I 



1 ENDEAVOURED to Call the attention of Naturalists to this neg- 
lected Order ten years since, when I described and illustrated 
the genus Leptocerus (folio 57); and the hope I expressed in 
a memoir published in the London and Edinburgh Phil. Mag. 
the beginning of last year, has been realised by the appearance 
of Mons. Pictet's admirable work on the Phryganidae. His 
divisions, formed on the structure and oeconoray of the larvae, 
supply the most natural and unexceptionable definitions for 
Families, and the Genera he has characterized and adopted may 
be considered the types of them. Averse as I am to multi- 
plying genera, I am convinced that many more are already re- 
quired in this order, and the number and situation of the spurs 
in the tibiae, and the neuration of the wings, will furnish admi- 
rable distinctions for such groups : the palpi I consider the 
best test; but without dissection and a number of specimens it 
is frequently impossible to obtain a view of them, or to ascer- 
tain whether these Insects possess labial palpi at all. 

The following are two of M. Pictet's analytical Tables, which 
cannot fail to be acceptable to Entomologists. 

PHRYGANEA. 



rMaxiUary palpi of the male f forming a rounded face Sericostoma Lat. 

I spoon-shaped or clavate t clavate, with bristly scales Trichostoma Pict 

. . I |- long and hairy. Antenna? very long Mystacide Lat. ; 

spfappfii^ T (-terminal joint ■< moderately long j triarticulate in the male; wings 

of palpi ovate Landslightly hairy j with transverse nervures Phrygauea Lat, 

5-jointed in both sexes ; wings 

without transverse nervures .... Rhyacophila Pict 



setaceous. . 

I Palpi of male 
L filiiorm 



1 



with 



terminal joint of palpi forming r inferior wings folded HydropsichePicti 

an elongated filament t inferior wings not folded Psychomia Lat. | 

Antennae filiform Hydroptila Dal. | 

LARViE 

{external respiratory organs isolated, legs moderately 
long Phryganea. 
resmratnrvnriransin tnfts / '''"'''^'' lPgs'o"g Mystacide. 
respiratory organs in tntts | ^.^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^.j Sericostoma. 

segments with the anterior angles produced Trichostoma. 

.case opening by a cleft Hydroptila. 

... . f pupa with a double envelope Rhyacophila. 

witnnuiacase \ pupa ^ith a simple envelope Hydropsiche. 

The remarkable insect figured in our plate is most allied to 
Limnephilus (pi. 488.), before which it may be placed. A 
portion of the apex of the horns has evidently been broken off 
whilst the insect was alive, as their length is unequal, and the 
tips are of a darker colour. I have named it after my friend 
C. J. Paget, Esq., who took it off some rushes in a salt marsh 
between Yarmouth and Caister, the 14th of August 1833. 

The Plant is Frankenia Iccvis (Smooth Sea- Heath). 



4SS 





c^^-^.^: 



488. 

LIMNEPHILUS ELEGANS. 

The elegant Grannom or May-fly. 

Order Trichoptera. Fam. Phryganiclae. 
Type of the Genus, Phryganea grisea Linn. 

LiMNEPHiLus Lea., Sam., Curt. — Phryganea Linn., Fab., Lat. 

Antenna; inserted close to the interior margin of the eyes, but 
remote from the mouth, shorter than the wings, slender, scti- 
ceous and pubescent, composed of numerous joints, the Lasal 
one stout ovate and hairy, 2nd cup-shaped, 3rd oblong, longer 
than the following, which are quadrate gradually becoming ob- 
long towards the apex, the terminal joint elongate-conic (1). 
Labrum (2) resting in a groove in the labium, tongue-shaped, 
hairy, dilated, convex and orbicular at the base. 
Mandibles very minute. 

Maxilla small, terminated by an obcordate lobe, hairy on the 
outside (4. m). Palpi shorter than the thorax, and- 5-jointed, 
pubescent and slightly pilose, basal joint short and oblong, the 
remainder slightly attenuated, long and of equal length, except 
the 4th, which is considerably shorter (4). 

Mentum transverse, short, concave before, the anterior angles 

dilated and rounded. Lip nutant, long, fleshy and conical. Palpi 

attached to very short scapes, approximating at the base, triarti- 

culate, 1st and 2nd joints hairy, of equal length, subovate, the 

latter the slenderer, 3rd considerably longer, as broad as the 1st 

and elliptical (5). 

Head small, transverse : eyes lateral very prominent and globose : 

ocelli 2, placed on the crown of the head near to the eyes. Thorax 

small subglobose. Abdomen rather compressed in the male, longer 

and stouter in the female. Wings, superior deflexed when at rest, 

long and narroiv, pubescent, and slightly coriaceous tvith numerous 

longitudinal hairy nervures and an irregular line of transverse ones 

beyond the middle with an elongated stigmatic cell (9) : inferior rather 

shorter than the others but very ample, folded ivhen at rest, very 

delicate, with numerous longitudinal cells, many of them united by 

transverse nervures. Legs, excepting the thighs, bristly : coxae long : 

thighs slender : tibiae simple, posterior with a pair of spurs at and 

another pair above the apex : tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint the longest: 

claws and pulvilli minute. Larvae inhabiting the water and living in 

cases formed of sand, shells, pebbles, bits of wood, grass or straw and 

leaves of plants; the head and 3 frst segments horny, ivith 6 rather 

long pectoral legs, 4th segment with 2 or 3 tubercles, the apical joint 

furnished with 2 claws. Vn])?e, formed in the same case. 

Elegans Curt. Guide, Gen. 748. 17^ 

Palpi and antennae ferruginous; head and thorax somewhat 
castaneous, the crown of the former and the back of the latter 
lead colour ; abdomen ochreous, the back fuscous with whitish 
margins to the segments. Wings shining, superior pale brown, 
the nervures darker, with the 3rd cell, a stripe on the disc, the 
1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th posterior cells and a spot at the base of 
the 3rd and 6th whitish, the superior discoidal cell very long. 



The female Phrjganidae like the Ephemeridae produce their 
eggs in double series : the larvae live upon those of aquatic 
insects and the leaves of water plants : in this state the Limne- 
phili form cases (from whence they are called Caddis or case- 
worms) constructed of various materials, with a silken lining 
impervious to the water and open at both ends ; but previous 
to becoming pupie a grating is placed at each end to prevent 
other animals from molesting and destroying them, and at the 
same time for admitting the water. The larvae are furnished 
with fleshy tubercles on the following segment to the pectoral 
feet, which no doubt are to prevent them from being drawn 
out of the case in the event of any resistance, as they walk along 
in the water. There seems to be a state in the Phryganidae 
somewhat analogous to that of the Ephemeridae, for at first 
the pupa is quiescent, but when it is about to become an Imago 
it cuts through the grating of the case before alluded to, rises 
to the surface of the water, crawls upon some plant, the an- 
tennae and legs being free, excepting the hinder pair, and there 
it leaves the exuvia. 

For descriptions of the new species I must refer the reader 
to the Phil. Mag., vol.4, and for a list of the whole to my Guide. 

1. L. basalis Curt. — B. June, Holly-bushes, New Forest. 

2. emarginatus Curt. — Do. and Glanville's Wootton. 

3. Strigosa Gmel. — May to September, marshy places. 

4. griseus Linn. — Do. Do. 

6. flavicornis Fab. — Ahr. 5. 14. var. ? — Duddlngston Loch. 

7. rhombicus Linn. — Don. 7- 220. — May to September, trees in woods, 

sides of lakes, rivers, &c., everywhere. 

10. apicalis Curt. — B. Sept. to Oct., bushes in meadows, everywhere. 

12. fenestralis Curt. — B. June, Fir-trees, &c.. New Forest, 

13. bipunctatus Curt. — B. June, Holly and White-thorns, Do. and b. 

September, Durnford, Wilts. 

14. affinis Curt. — B. June, Southampton and New Forest; e. August, 

Covehithe, Suffolk ; m. October, Sand-hills, Sandgate. 
23. sparsus Curt. — B. May and June, Coombe, New Forest and G. Wootton. 
25. Vinculum Curt. — B. June, New Forest. 

11. Auricula Curt. — Spring Fir-trees, Glanville's Wootton, Mr. Dale; 

b. June, Oxford ; m. October, Sand-hills, Lowestoft. 

18. bipartitus Curt. — B. June, Oaks, Rushes, &c.. New Forest. 

19. Consobrinus Curt. — M. October, Heron Court. 

17". elegans Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 488. S. 1st of June Mr. Dale took 2 
from Alders, by side of river in New Forest. 

27. nervosus Lon. — May to m. October, sides of rivers Heron Court, and 

between Sandgate and Sand-hills in abundance. 

28. radiatusZea. — Do. Isle of Wight, and Apple-trees, Glanville'sWootton, 

and m. November paired and feeding on Yevv berries, Mr. Walton. 

29. hieroglyphicus. — M. October, on windows at Cobham, Surrey. 

30. Vibcx Curt. — Norfolk and Halifax, Rev. J.B. Reade. 
32. stellatus Curt. — Autumn Glanville's Wootton, Mr. Dale. 

34. villosus Fab. — September to m. October, in plenty at Hurne, Hants, 
near the river, and one at Glanville's Wootton, Mr. Dale. 

" PhryganejK," says Stewart in his Elements of Nat. Hist., 
" are the favourite food of Swallows, and the larvai are used 
by fishermen for bait : in some parts of Holland they are so 
abundant, as to be used for manure." 

The Plant is Stratiotes aloides (Fresh- water Soldier). 




jgk 







iyj%3^ 



592. 
PHRYGANEA MINOR. 



Order Trichoptera. Fam. Phryganidae. 

Type of the Genus, Pliryganea grandis Linn. 
Phryganea Linn, &c. 

Antennte inserted in front of the forehead, approximating, as 
long as the body, setaceous, composed of numerous short joints, 
pubescent beneath (1, the base). 

Labrum elongated, pilose, subacuminate at the apex, but sur- 
rounded by a membranous ovate pubescent membrane (2). 
Mandibles small, soft, pubescent and trigonate (3). 
Maxilla: small, terminated by an articulated, obpyriform pubes- 
cent lobe (4, m). Palpi long, pubescent, pilose and 5-jointed, 
basal joint ovate and bristly, 2nd the longest, stout and sub- 
clavate, the remainder slightly decreasing in length, 5th joint 
elliptic (4 $ ) : shorter and 4-jointed in the male (4 ^J). 
Mentum small and transverse. Paljn long, porrected, pilose and 
triarticulate, attached to large scapes, arising behind the men- 
tum; basal joint the stoutest, ovate-truncate, 2nd smaller obo- 
vate, 3rd the longest, subelliptic ( ? 5) ; shorter and stouter in 
the male ((^5). Lip large, fleshy and ovate, much smaller in 
the male. 
Head transverse ovate : eyes lateral globose and very prominent : oceUi 
3 forming a large triangle. Thorax orbicular. Abdomen short and 
compressed in the male, the apex furnished with 2 long incurved 
horny appendages with 2 short ones beloio them and a bilobed one 
between them (A, the underside) : longer stouter and more conical at 
the apex in the female. Wings somewhat deflexed ivhen at rest, 
elongated and lanceolate in the female, more obtuse in the male. Legs 
strong ; thighs velvety : tibiae spined ; anterior short and spurred 
at the apex (8) ; intermediate (*) and hinder which are very long and 
curved (f), spurred at the apex, with a pair also considerably below 
the middle : tarsi 5-jointed, basal joint the longest, the remainder 
gradually decreasing in length, the 4th being the shortest in the an- 
terior pair : claws and pulvilli minute. 

Minor Curt, in Phil. Mag. — Guide, Gen. 750. 6. 

Subochreous, antennae annulated with brown, the base, crown 
of head, and back of thorax greyish clothed with ochreous hairs; 
base of abdomen brown, back fuscous : wings pubescent, ner- 
vures brown; superior ochreous variegated and reticulated, Avith 
a brown patch at the base, an imperfect fascia at the middle, 
with a black lunate spot and a white dot on the disc, a brown 
fimbria at the posterior margin bearing 2 round ochreous spots 
on the costa, a distinct line formed of similar spots parallel to 
the margin, which is broken by similar spots and the edges 
spotted brown ; inferior wings iridescent, pale fuscous at the 
apex ; palpi, anterior thighs and tips of tibiae brown. 
In the Author's Cabinet. 



It appears from Roesel's figure that the larva of P. grandis 
forms a case of the outside sheaths of the base of Reeds or 
some such aquatic plants. DeGeer found the eggs in a double 
mass of jelly deposited on Sallow leaves which hung over a 
stream ; and Mr. Hyndman of Belfast has seen the female 
P, grandis enter the water for that purpose, which is so re- 
markable a fact that I shall transcribe his remarks on the sub- 
ject, which he was so obliging as to communicate to me. 
" Tfie Phryganea was taken at the Botanic Garden, Belfast, 
the 27th May, 1833. I first observed it on the leaf of an 
aquatic plant, from which it crept down along the stem, under 
the water, very nearly a foot deep. It then appeared to have 
been disturbed by some Sticklebacks which approached it and 
seemed inclined to attack it, and swam vigorously and rapidly 
beneath the water over to some other plants. I then took the 
insect up and found a large bundle of eggs of a green colour 
closely enveloped in a strong jelly-like substance, attached to 
the extremity of its abdomen. The bundle of eggs was of an 
oblong form, bent in the middle, and the two ends attached 
to the tail of the animal." 

The following are British species. 

1. grandis Linn. Female Roesel v. Q,. pi. 17. — Panz. 94<. 18. — 
Schccf. Icon. 109.y; 3. 4. — Male P. striata iZ/zw. — DeGeer 
2. pi. 13./ \.— Schccf. 180./ 1. & 2. ?— Obs. Reaumur's 
and Geoffroy's figures referred to by Linnaeus are a Lim- 
nephilus ! 
May and June, woods and willows in marshes. 

3. Beckwithii Leach. Fig. 4. ^jZ. 3. in the Intr. to Ent. is a 

magnified figure I believe of this species ; it was drawn 
from a fine specimen in the late Mr. Beckwith's cabinet. 

4. atomaria Fah. Ent. Syst. 2. 78. 15. I have never seen this 

species. 

5. varia Fah. — Do7i. 8. pi. 277. 1. — Pictet pi. 11./ 1. 

End of June, trunks of Willows, Darent, Bottisham, and 
Scotland, J. C. ; beginning of July, amongst rocks in Cum- 
berland, Mr. Marshall; Parley, Uggmere, and the Trossacks, 
Mr. Dale. 

6. minor Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 592. 

21st July, Epping Forest, J. C. ; where it has also been 
taken by Mr. Bentley ; Parley Heath and Scotland, Mr. Dale. 

The Plant is Scirpus {ho\eY>is)Jluitaus, Floating Club-rush. 



I 



^M 




w 



544. 
POLYCENTROPUS IRRORATUS. 



Order Trichoptera. Fam. Hydropsychidae. 

Type of the Genus, Philopotamus irroratus Curt. 
PoLYCENTROPUS and Philopotamus Curt. — Hydropsyche Pictet. 

Antenna inserted in front of the crown close to the eyes, a little 
longer than the body, rather stout and attenuated, composed of 
numerous pubescent joints, the basal one very short and thick, 
2nd quadrate, 3rd and 4th oblong, the remainder becoming gra- 
dually slender, longer and oval (1, a few basal joints). 
Maxillary Palpi long, incurved, pilose and 5-jointed in both 
sexes, 2 basal joints short, the latter very pilose, 3rd long and 
stout, 4th rather shorter, subclavate and furnished with strong 
bristles on the inside as well as the 3rd joint ; 5th slender, as 
long as the others united, wrinkled, giving it the appearance of 
being composed of numerous cup-shaped joints, the apex ovate 
(4). 

Mentum somewhat trilobed. Palpi considerably shorter than 
the maxillary, pubescent, triarticulate, 2 basal joints very stout, 
1st the shortest, somewhat obconic, 2nd truncated obliquely, 
3rd longer than the other 2, but much slenderer, membranous, 
a little dilated at the base and apparently composed of 12 or 13 
joints, the apex ovate (5). 
Head rather transverse ovate : eyes lateral and globose : ocelli undis- 
covered. Thorax not broader than the head, and rather short. Ab- 
domen short and narrow, the apex of the male furnished ivith 2 ovate 
lobes beneath, and a process producing 2 divaricating appendages like 
claws ; conical in the female. Wings defexed in repose, superior 
with 6 furcate terminal nervures and 4 or 5 transverse ones (9) ; 
mier'wr folded with S furcate marginal nervures. Legs, hinder pair 
the longest : thighs, middle pair a little the longest : tibiae, anterior 
short, with a spine on the side before the middle and 2 at the apex 
(8); intermediate rather the stoutest, with 2 pair of long spurs, one 
pair near to the base (*); posterior jjazV very long and slender, with 
two pair of long spurs, one at the apex and another considerably be- 
low the middle (f); tarsi long slender and 5-jointed, intermediate a 
little dilated and compressed, as well as the apex of the tibia, parti- 
cularly in the females ; claws and pulvilli small. 
Larv'se living without a case : Pupae with a simple envelope. Pictet. 

Irroratus. — Curt. Guide, Gen. 75P. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



The present genus is a proof of the necessity of minutely in- 
vestigating these curious insects, for although at first sight they 
bear a strong resemblance to the true Philopotami, they are 
considerably diflPerent in structure : there are no less than 22 
spurs on the legs, and the terminal joint in all the palpi is 
very remarkable : in the labial especially it has so much the 



appearance of numerous cup-shaped joints that 1 am doubtful 
whether they may not be membranous articulations. 

It appears to me that I have three species of Polycentropi, 
which 1 shall proceed to describe, observing that the first of 
them may be the H. jlavo-maculata of Mons. Pictet. 

1. trimaculatusCwy/. Lond.Sf Edin. Phil. Mag. v. 4, Genus 751, 

No. 4. 

Male. Expansion scarcely 6 lines. Fuscous with an ochreous 
or coppery tinge : head clothed with pale shining hairs; 
antennae annulated with the same colour; superior wings 
with numerous ochreous round spots, most distinct to- 
wards the margin, where they form a line, with fJ in 
triangle at the posterior angle; legs dirty ochre. 
The above name I applied to this species when 1 had only 

a bad specimen, in which most of the spots, excepting the 3 

above noticed, were obliterated. 

I believe I found this insect twice in a ditch at Horning, 

Norfolk, in June. 

2. multiguttatus Curt. MSS. 

Male, expansion 6, female 8 lines. Fuscous, iridescent : an- 
tennae nearly as long as the superior wings in the male, 
spotted or annulated with ochre ; superior wings with in- 
numerable ochreous spots, with a white dot on a fuscous 
space on the interior margin, and an oblique line on the 
disc ; posterior tibiae brown, especially the upper side in 
the male. 
The blacker colour of the upper wings and the hinder tibiae, 

and the whitish transparent dot and line on the former, most 

evident in the female, distinguish this from the former species. 
It appeared in multitudes on the shores of Loch Fad in the 

Isle of Bute the beginning of last August. 

3. irroratus Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. S't^ c? • 

Male, expansion 6f to 8 lines, female 9 lines. Brown, head 
and thorax with shining yellowish hairs ; antennae annu- 
lated with ochre; superior wings with numerous ochreous 
silky spots, close together, but leaving several spaces, 
forming 7 or 8 brown patches on the costa, disc, and in- 
ferior margin; under wings very iridescent; legs dull 
ochreous, with a pale castaneous tint. 
The brown spots on the upper wings, most evident in the 
males, distinguish this species from the others. 

I took specimens the middle of last August in the Isle of 
Arran, and the beginning of September I met with others on 
large masses of rock in the bed of the river at Cartland Craigs, 
a magnificent and highly picturesque ravine near Lanark, 
which I visited with Mr. Haliday and Mr. H. Walker. 

The Plant is Schoenus nigricans (Black Bog-rush), commu- 
nicated by Jas. Paget, Esq. 



6oi 




'u/:Aj cXt&t*^*-^ 



73^^3 6 

601. 
HYDROPSYCHE FULVIPES. 



Order Trichoptera. Fam. Hydropsychida?. 

Type of the Genus, Pliilopotamus instabilis Curt. 
Hydropsyche Pictet. — Philopotamus Cart. — Phryganea Gmel. 

Antennce inserted in front of the face, very slender, much longer 
than the body, generally longer than the wings, composed of 
numerous elongated joints, the basal one robust and subglobose, 
2nd small (1). 

Labrum transverse, the sides notched, anterior margin convex, 
with a lunate membranous pubescent margin (2). 
Maxillary palpi long, hairy and 5-jointed, 4 basal joints robust, 
1st oblong, 2nd twice as long, 3rd shorter subtrapezate, 4th as 
long as the 2nd, 5th as long as the others united, slender, 
slightly attenuated and wrinkled or composed of numerous 
irregular transverse joints with long hairs on the inside (4). 
Labial palpi not half the length of the maxillary, hairy and tri- 
articulate, 2 basal joints stout somewhat obtrigonate, truncated 
obliquely, 3rd twice as long, but more slender and filiform, 
composed of numerous transverse irregular joints having a 
wrinkled appearance (5). 
Head transverse : eyes lateral and globose : ocelli undiscovered. 
Thorax subovate. Abdomen short and linear in the male, termi- 
nated by one central and 2 elongated incurved appendages beneath ; 
more conical and simple in the female. Wings very much deflexed 
in repose ; superior long, narrowed towards the base, truncated ob- 
liquely, the apex rounded, with o furcate nervures on the posterior 
margin; inferior ovate, with 2 furcate and a trifid nervure at the 
centre (9 /). Legs, anterior short, hinder the longest ; tibiae, ante- 
rior with 2 spurs at the apex (8), intermediate a little dilated in the 
females, spurred at the apex, with a long pair above the middle (*) ,• 
hinder with 2 pair of spurs, one pair a little above the apex (f) ■■ 
tarsi 5-jointed, the intermediate compressed and dilated in the fe- 
male (*) .- claws and pulvilli small. 
Larvae not living in a case. Pupae with a simple envelope. Pictet. 

FuLviPES Curt. Guide, Gen. 75P. — nebulosa P^cM?. 

Dark brown ; antennae fulvous, annulated with brown ; head and 
neck clothed with griseous hairs ; margins of abdominal segments 
pale : superior wings yellow-brown with a rosy hue, obscurely 
freckled with ochre, nervures dark, with a small dark dot on the 
costa at the apex of the first furcate nervure ; inferior wings 
similar in colour but iridescent and less yellow ; legs fulvous ; 
thighs fuscous and sometimes the tibiae. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale and the Author. 



As this group, which I gave as a section of Philopotamus in 
the " Phil. Mag.", comprises the typical species of M.Pictet's 
genus Hydropsyche, I have adopted his name : it is nearly re- 
lated to Philopotamus and Polycentropus; but is distinguished 
from the former by its much longer and slenderer antennae, 



as well as by the dilated tarsi of the female intermediate feet ; 
from the latter by the absence of the central spur on the an- 
terior tibiae; and from both those genera by the trifid nervure 
in the inferior wings and differences in the palpi. 
The following are British species : 

1. instabilis Curt, in Phil. Mag. v. 4. — maculatus Don. v. 16. 
pi. 548. 2. — atomaria Pict., Gmcl.P 

May, Southgate ; June, bushes and plants near the river, 
Ambleside ; July, GlengarifF; several pair on the steam-boat 
on Loch Derg and in Galway. As there is a P. maculatus Oliv. 
it became necessary to change Donovan's name, and our insect 
does not quite agree with Gmelin's description. 

2. hibernica Curt. Ochreous ; antennae with slender rings to 
the basal joints, head thorax and abdomen fuscous; superior 
wings with a few small obscure spots at the base, below the 
disc and round the apex and cilia : expanse 12 lines. 

I took a male the end of July at Roundstone in Connemara ; 
it is readily distinguished by its ochreous nervures. 

3. pellucidula Curt. Phil. Mag. — Iseta Pict. ? Head, thorax 
and abdomen slale-black ; antennae very long, ochreous 
spotted fuscous; wings semitransparent, superior obscurely 
freckled with pale fuscous and ochre, margin spotted with 
ochre from the stigma to the posterior angle, with 2 long 
spots on the inferior margin and the legs ochreous: 14 to 15 
lines. — Common in Perthshire in July. 

4. lanceolata Curt. Phil. Mag. Wings fuscous, superior slightly 
hooked, clothed with shining ochreous pubescence, slightly 
freckled, the posterior margin spotted fuscous : 13 lines. 

I took a male either in Scotland or near Ambleside. 

5. angustipennis Curt. Phil. Mag. Antennas slightly serrated 
and annulated ; head and thorax slate-black, abdomen red- 
dish black ; wings fuscous, superior with an ochreous tint, 
an ochreous oblong spot before, and a round one at the pos- 
terior angle, very distinct in the males; legs ochreous, darker 
at the base: 10 to 13 lines. — I have taken several in Norfolk. 

6. fulvipes Curt. Brit. E7it. pi. 601 ? . 

Taken by J. C. Dale, Esq., the end of June, off a hedge, 
with a brook running below it, by Muller's Copse, near Glan- 
ville's Wootton. 

7. ventralis Curt. — angustata? Pict. Antennae shorter than 
the wings, annulated ; head and thorax griseous ; abdo- 
men slate-colour, beneath silky green or whitish ; wings 
subdiaphanous fuscous, superior ochreous, with silky yel- 
lowish pubescence and slightly iridescent, a large obscure 
ochreous spot on the costa towards the apex, and another 
on the interior margin beyond the middle: 6,} lines. 
This makes an approach in habit to the genus Tinodes. I 

took both sexes in July on the steam-boat on Loch Derg. 
The Plant is Char a vulgaris var. /3 (Common Stonewort). 






J 



51 




f^ 



1 



d^l^Jf^^^-^^'"'''^' 



^ - / ^ ;2 6' 
57. 

LEPTOCERUS OCHRACEUS. 



Order Trichoptera. Tam. Leptoceridse Leach, Pliryga- 

nites Lat. 

Type of the Genus *Phryganea iuterrupta lab. 

Leptocebus Leach. Phryganea Litin., Fab., Lat. 

Antennce inserted between the eyes, setaceous, very long, espe- 
cially in the males, porrected, composed of numerous simple joints, 
1st and 2nd joints thick, hairy, forming together an obovate club, 
3rd joint long, 4th and following shorter, nearly of equal length 

(fig- 1.) . 

Labruin inflected, broad and coriaceous at the base, narrowed 
towards the apex, which is membranaceous quadrate, and hollow 
beneath (2.) 
Mandibles very minute. 

Maxillce membranaceous, small, somewhat trigonate, lying parallel 
to the sides of the lip : Palpi very long and hairy, coriaceous at 
the base, membranaceous towards the apex, 6-jointed, 1st and 2nd 
joints long, robust, 3rd long, slender, bent at its base, 3 following 
shorter of nearly equal length (4.) 

Menttmt bilobed (5. b.) : Paljn hairy, 3-jointed, articulations of 
nearly equal length, terminal joint compressed, flexible (c.) 
Lip short, moveable, pubescent, received between the labrum and 
mentum (5. a.) 
Eyes prominent. Ocelli 2, distant. Abdomen somewhat compressed, 
composed of 9 joints, in the male, with a cotisiderable space down 
each side covered only with a thin membrane. Superior wings very 
much deflexed, ciliated, covered with hairs, having many hairy nerves, 
of which the costal and the next to it are the strongest (9.). In- 
ferior wings not very large, plicate. Legs elongated. Tibiae opined. 
Tarsi h-jointed, 1st joint very long. Claws 2. Pidvilli small (8 a 
fore leg.) 
Larva inhabiting the water and residing in tubes ^ covered externally with 

sand, pebbles, shells, small pieces of grass, ^c. 
Pupa resembling the imago, inclosed in the case in which it lived in the 
larva state. 



OcHKACEUS nob. 

Pale and dull ochre colour. Eyes black. Antennae towards their 
apex and annulations fuscous. Head and thorax fen-uginous, 
the latter with 3 longitudinal fuscous obscure stripes Abdomen 
cinereous. Superior wings long, lanceolate, rounded. Cilia 
fuscous. Inferior wings semi-transparent. Legs pale. 

In the Author's Cabinet. 



* The dissections are made from Leptocerus ochraceus. 



There are in the cabinets of this country about 130 native 

species of the various genera forming the order Trichoptera „ 

established by Mr. Kirby : of this number the greater portion | 

are unnamed and undescribed ; of those that have been noticed 

by authors, descriptions may be found in the works of Linnaeus, 

Eabricius, and the 13th volume of Latreille's Histoire Natu- 

relle. 

Neglected as Trichoptera has been, it is difficult if not danger- 
ous at present to enter far upon the subject of species. Dr. Leach 
divided the order into 12 genera, but no characters have been 
published of them even, excepting four, viz. Leptocerus, Odonto- 
cerus, Phryganea, and LimnepJdlus. 

Of the genus Leptocerus there are probably 20 British species : 
the elegant one figured has been selected from its appearing to 
be a nondescript ; its rarity does not less entitle it to illustration, 
for I have not observed it in any of the cabinets of my friends : 
the specimens figured and described were taken by myself resting 
upon the paling which surrounds the Regent's Park, in the sum- 
mer of 1822 : the end of last August I took 3 from off plants in 
a marshy situation near the sea, upon the estate of Sir Thomas 
Gooch, bart., Benacre, Suffolk : being certain that those which I 
took near town appeared much earlier in the year, I suspected 
that they were another species, but I cannot discover the slightest 
variation in them. 

With the larvae and pupae we are unacquainted ; but little 
doubt exists, from their being found in the neighbourhood of 
streams or stagnant waters, that they are in their economy Hke 
the rest of the family, the beauty of whose habitations as well as 
the instinct displayed in the construction of them never fail to 
excite our admiration. An investigation of their economy would 
in all probability put us in possession of good secondary generic 
characters : it would not be attended with any difficulty to those 
who live in neighbourhoods where they are found, for the cadis is 
well known and celebrated amongst fishermen as a bait, and the 
case-worm may be met with in every brook and pond ; the sub- 
ject could not but be highly interesting to any one who loves to 
explore and study the works of Nature. Whenever such materials 
can be obtained as satisfactorily to identify the different stages of 
the insect figured, I shall not fail to avail myself of the opportu- 
nity of laying them before my readers. -^ 

The type of the genus {L. interruptus) is figured in Donovan's 
Brit. Ins. v. 16. t. 551. The plant figured, upon which L. 
ochraceus was found in the autumn, is Epiloh'mm hirsutum 
(Large-flowered Willow-herb). 



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716. 
MOLANNA ANGUSTATA. 



Order Trichoptera. Fam. Leptoceridae. 

Type of the Genus, Molanna angustata Curt. 

MoLANNA Curt., Step. 

Antennce porrected in repose but divaricating, a little longer than 
the wings in the male, shorter in the female, rather stout, a little 
tapering, pubescent, composed of numerous joints, basal joint 
the stoutest, 2nd short, 3rd cup-shaped, longer than the 4th, the 
6 following increasing in length, the remainder elongated (1 the 
base and apex). 

MaxillcE small, with a minute terminal ovate lobe, a little cili- 
ated. Palpi much longer than the head, porrected, alike in both 
sexes, very hairy, 5 -jointed, basal joint short and the stoutest, 
2nd the smallest, semiconical, 3 following long, nearly equal in 
length, a little tapering (4). 

Mentum terminated by 2 horny oval scales placed obliquely. 
Labium rather large, subglobose and inflated. Palpi consider- 
ably shorter than the maxillary, very hairy, triarticulate, basal 
joint oval, 2nd nearly twice as long and linear, 3rd a little longer, 
the apex ovate (5). 
Males smaller than the females. Head transverse, hairy : eyes pro- 
minent, globose, coarsely granulated and hairy : ocelli none ? Tho- 
rax small and oval. Abdomen short linear and clavate, with 2 lobes 
at the apex above and 2 horny curved processes beneath in the males ; 
thick and obtuse in the female. Wings deflexed in repose, depressed 
on the back and compressed behind, long, narrow and rounded at the 
apex, superior with a short furcate cell at the apex, a long one beloio 
and an oblique nervure above it. Legs with short bristles internally, 
anterior the shortest : thighs, anterior the shortest ; middle pair a 
little the longest : tibiae, anterior the shortest, with a pair of spurs 
at the apex (8), the others with the spurs longer, with a pair also be- 
low the middle (*), especially in the hinder tibia, which are the longest 
and slenderest and a little flexuose (f) : tarsi long andb-jointed, basal 
joint long, the remainder gradually decreasing, but the 4th is not 
shorter than the 5th : claws and pulvilli small. 



Angustata Curt, in Phil. Mag. — Guide, Gen. 754^. 

Male ochreous : head, thorax and abdomen dull castaneous, 
head and shoulders clothed with a few coarse ochreous hairs : 
eyes black : superior wings silky, nervures brown ; inferior pu- 
bescent, pale fuscous with darker nervures ; cilia black next 
the abdomen. Female with the superior wings fuscous, being 
sparingly clothed with minute silky aureous hairs. 

In the Cabinets of Mr. Dale, the Author, &€. 

An ample series of fine specimens of Chimarra, which I found 
in vast abundance in Ireland, enabled me to study its affinities ; 



and it was my intention to place it in the 2ncl edition of my 
Guide next before Molanna, but by some accident it was in- 
serted between Potomaria and Sericostoma, which in all pro- 
bability belong to one genus. Although I still doubt if it be 
better located than it was at first, when it was illustrated in 
this work (fol. 561), 1 am anxious to correct the palpable error 
committed in the Guide, before I proceed to discuss the affi- 
nities of Molanna. 

This type appears to have been unknown to M. Pictet at 
the time iiis Memoir was printed ; we therefore know nothing 
of its early oeconomy ; but from its being found in the neigh- 
bourhood of deep water, it is no doubt similar to its allies. 

It appears to me that its natural situation is between Lepto- 
cerus and Odonlocerus. The trophi are considerably like 
those of the former genus, as well as the wings, and the long 
stout antennae and the whole contour assimilate with those of 
the latter group. 

The way in which Molanna rests is peculiar, and bears a 
striking resemblance at a little distance to the ochreous 
Crambi : the antennae, palpi, and breast are pressed close to 
the surface on which it stands, the wings are elevated and 
somewhat cylindric, enveloping the abdomen, which is of 
course concealed, and the legs are spread out: when thus 
settled they are rather loath to move, especially the females. 

M. angustata I find on paling near the water in the Regent's 
Park : the males first come out the end of May ; the females 
I do not find until the middle of June; and a few males ap- 
pear again the beginning of August. I have never taken it 
elsewhere, excepting a single male in a boat whilst I was fish- 
ing last August at Henley. With them I find occasionally a 
specimen with the palpi, head, and abdomen fuscous, which is 
the M. nigripalpis of Stephens. 

The plant is Acorns Calamus, Sweet Flag, specimens of 
which were transmitted to me by Laurence Sulivan, Esq., 
and others from Wimbledon by J. E. Gray, Esq. 



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561. 
CHIMARRA MARGINATA. 



Order Trichoptera. Fam. Psychomidae. 

Type of the Genus, Phryganea marginata Linn. 
Chimarra Leach., Curt. — Psychomia ? Pictet. — Phryganea Linn. 
Antennce inserted before the eyes, as long as the wings in the 
male, shorter in the female, tapering, hairy, composed of nume- 
rous oblong joints, basal one stout, subovate, 2nd the shortest, a 
few of the following short, apical joint oval (1 the base and apex) . 
Labrum minute and trigonate. 

Maxillie closely united to the labjum, with a pointed and bristly 
terminal lobe. Palpi alike in both sexes, long, curved, com- 
pressed, pubescent and 5-jointed, basal joint the broadest, cup- 
shaped, 2nd and 3rd very long, the former stoutest at the base 
and surrounded with long hairs at the apex, the latter narrowed 
at the base, 4th short, subovate, truncated, 5tli twice as long, 
the slenderest and somewhat filiform (4). 

Mentum suborbicular, truncated at the base, emarginate before. 
Palpi not so long as the maxillary, hairy, triarticulate, basal 
joint broad, somewhat oblong, 2nd a little shorter, elongate, 
obtrigonate, 3rd nearly as long as the other two, slender and 
filiform (5). 
Head subglobose : eyes lateral, globose and very prominent : ocelli 3, 
large, forming a spacious triangle. Thorax rather ovate. Abdo- 
men rather short, especially in the male. Wings hairy, slightly de- 
flexed when at rest, the superior crossing, the back flattened ; inferior 
not folded ; superior with 8 or 9 longitudinal nervures, 3 of them, 
forked ; transverse nervures none (9) . Legs, anterior the shortest : 
thighs, anterior the broadest but narrow at the apex, intermediate 
the longest : tibiae, anterior simple (8), the others spurred at the 
apex, the intermediate having a pair above (*), and the hinder tibia: 
which are the longest a pair below the middle (f) : tarsi 5-jointed, 
intermediate compressed and a little dilated in the female ; basal joint 
the longest, 4th small: claws of anterior feet rather long, the others 
minute. 

Marginata Li'nw. ? — Curt. Guide, Gen. 752. 1. 

Smoky black ; basal joint of antennje, face and head, excepting 
the crown, clothed with orange hairs ; superior wings margined 
with yellow-ochre, the marginal cell being of that colour form- 
ing the broadest portion, the cilia the narrowest ; an oblique 
nervure furcate at the apex, yellow- ochre, as well as another 
beneath it towards the base, inferior wings with the costa ex- 
cept at the base and the cilia at the apex of the same colour : 
legs ochreous, base of thighs and anterior tarsi at the apex, 
fuscous. 

In the Author s and other Cabinets. 



This highly interesting insect has been described by Linn<eus, 
but it has never been figured, and M. Pictet does not appear 
to have been acquainted with it; and although Dr. Leach gave 
it a generic name, it has never yet been characterized. There 
is no specimen contained in the Linnaean Cabinet, and from the 
size mentioned in the Systema Naturae it appears to have been 
the male that Linnaeus described, which is much smaller than 
the female, being only 6 instead of 8 or 9 lines in expanse. 

Chimarra is probably nearly allied to Hydroptila, but with- 
out recent specimens it would not be safe to discuss its affi- 
nities : those which I possess being much injured I cannot 
vouch for the correctness of the form in the mentum, and the 
labium also was too mutilated for description : I suspect that 
the long hairs represented on the inferior basal nervure in 
fig. 9. may be the cilia of the inferior wings transferred by 
damp and pressure. 

My friend Mr. Dale first gave me a specimen of this insect, 
which he took on the Dart near Spitchwick, Devon ; the Rev. 
W. L. P. Garnons met with it in plenty near Ambleside, and 
at Capel Cerig, Wales, the 11th of June 1832. I am also in- 
debted to Dr. Stephenson for specimens, accompanied with the 
following memorandum : " On the 7th of last June I took this 
insect in abundance on dry stones in a small mountain stream 
close by Rydal Hall, Westmoreland, the beautiful seat of Lady 
Ann le Fleming." 

I have much satisfaction in adding a figure of the local 
Eriocaulo7i septa7igulare{Jo'inted Pipewort). One of my objects 
in visiting the Isle of Skyelast summer was to see this curious 
plant growing, and I am happy in the opportunity it affiirds 
me of acknowledging the many kindnesses we received from 
Colin Elder, Esq., of Isleonsay, who directed us to the little 
Loch where it was in flower, and pointed out to me the variety 
with ten angles on the stalk. 

In a tour through the south-west of Ireland last July, Mr. 
Haliday and myself observed the Eriocaulon in abundance, in 
various lakes from near Oughterard to Roundstone in Con- 
nemara. 



497 





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497. 
ACENTROPUS GARNONSII. 



Order Trichoptera. Fam. Phryganida?. 

Type of the Gemis, Acentropus Garnonsii Curt. 
AcENTROPUs Curt. 

AntenncE inserted on the crown of the head close to the eyes, 
not so long as the body, slightly setaceous, pubescent, being 
clothed with very short hairs ; joints numerous obovate, the 
basal one subglobose (1, a portion of the apex). 
Lnbnnn rather elongated and tongue -shaped. 
Maxillary Palpi (in the male at least) large, drooping, triarticu- 
late ?, and densely clothed with scaly hairs (5). 
Labial Palpi none. 
Head subglobose, hollow beneath : eyes lateral globose, minutely reti- 
culated. Ocelli 2, placed behind the antennae. (P the head in profile, 
Y front vieiv and U underside of the same). Tliorax somewhat oval. 
Abdomen attenuated, terminated by a curved horny lobe and 2 hairy 
ones on each side in the male (A, apical portion in profile). Wings, 
superior suhlanceolate, with a long cell and several nervures issuing 
from it and extending to the jjosterior margin ; inferior ovate, with 
similar nervures ; cilia formed of long and short scales, dilated and 
lanceolate at the apex (9). Thighs rather short : tibipe simple not 
spurred: tarsi o-jointed, basal joint long, the remainder slightly de- 
creasing in length : claws aMc?pulvilli distinct (8 *, intermediate leg). 



Garnonsii Curt. Guide, Gen. 762'^. 1. 

Ochreous, head clothed with short white, and thorax with greyish 
scales ; eyes black : wings white and rather satiny, superior with 
the costa ochreous and the edge of the other margins slightly 
so ; the underside of the former densely clotlied with short and 
broad upright scales towards the apex, which is very acute. 
In the Cabinet of Mr. Dale. 



If Trichoptera be related to Neuroptera on the one hand, it 
most certainly is as nearly allied to the Lepidoptera on the 
other: it would therefoi'e be impossible to join it to either 
without uniting the three Orders. In the present instance, so 
near an approach does Acentropus make to the Lepidoptera, 
that if the palpi were broken off*, it would not be easy to de- 



cide to which Order it belonged, whether to the Trichoptera 
or Lepldoptera. The mealy texture of the insect might induce 
an opinion that it was Trichopterous, whilst the contour and 
neuration of the wings would be in favour of its relation to the 
Lepidoptera. The absence of a proboscis proves nothing, 
since it is sometimes wanting in the Bombycidas and other 
groups. I do not, however, remember any instance amongst 
the Lepidoptera in which the maxillary palpi are strongly 
developed, and the labial absent ; yet such appears to be the 
case in Acentropus: and amongst the Trichoptera, if there 
be no other instance in which the labial palpi are wanting (but 
I believe there is), at any rate they are frequently, if not always, 
smaller than the others, as in Limnephilus (PI. 488.) and Lepto- 
cerus (PI. 57.). From recent investigations of this Order, the 
results of which have been published in the 4th volume of the 
London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine, I have ascer- 
tained that this character is not only general but much stronger 
in many of the groups than in those above referred to. I lay 
more stress upon this observation, as it appears to be an im- 
portant definition in separating the Trichoptera from the Le- 
pidoptera, since the characters hitherto given do not seem to 
be sufficient to distinguish them *. 

The generic name of this curious insect alludes to the ab- 
sence of spurs at the apex of the tibiae ; the species, I have the 
pleasure of naming after the Rev. W. L. P. Garnons, of Sid- 
ney Sussex College, Cambridge, who took it at Layer Mur- 
ney, near Colchester, Essex, and presented it to J. C. Dale, 
Esq., to whom I am indebted for the opportunity of illustrating 
this remarkable genus. 1 think I have heard of Dr. Leach 
taking a specimen in June, in Scotland, and that it has been 
found also on the Croydon Canal, and in Berkshire. 

The Plant is Myriophyllum verticillaium (Whorled Milfoil); 
communicated by Professor Henslow, from Bottisham Fen, 
Cambridgeshire. i. 



* The want of some such cuide, it is to be presumed, has led Mr. New- 
man to place Psyche (PI. S32,), a genus of Moths, in his Neuropterous 
Circle, to elucidate the affinity between that Order and the Lepidoptera. 



\ 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Order 6. H YMENOPTERA. Vol. IV. 



Plate. 



Fam. CHRYSIDIDiE. 

344. Cleptes nitidula . . . 

345. Hedychrum ardens 

346. Chrysis fulgida . . . 

Fam. FORMICIDiE. 

347. Formica rufa. . . . 

348. Myrmecina 'Latreillii . 

Fam. MUTILLID iE. 

349. Mutilla ephippium . . 

350. Methoca ichneumonides 

Fam. SCOLIIDyE. 

351. Tiphia minuta . . . 

Fam. SAPYGID^. 

352. Sapyga clavicornis . . 

Fam. POMPILID^. 

353. Pompilus rufipes. . . 

354. Ceropales variegatus . 

Fam. SPHEGID^. 

355. Ammophila campestris 

Fam. LARRID^. 

356. Astata victor .... 

357. Oxybelus argentatus . 

Fam. CRABRONIDtE. 

358. Trypoxylon clavicerum 

359. Crabro subpunctatus . 

360. Rhopalum tibiale . 

361. Diodontus gracilis . . 

362. Pempliredon unicolor . 

363. Mellinus sabulosus . . 

364. Alyson Kennedii . . 

365. Gorytes bicinctus . . 

366. Psen equestris . . . 

Fam. CERCERID.E. 

367. Cerceris laeta . . . ., . . 

368. Philanthus androgj'nus . , 

Fam. VESPID^. 

369. Odynerus parietinus . . , 

370. Eumenes atricorms . . . , 

371. Vespa rufa 

Fam. ANDRENID^. 

372. Hylseus dilatatus . . . . 

373. Colletes fodiens . . . . , 

374. Dasypoda Swammerdamella 

375. Andrena Kirbii . . . . , 

376. Lasioglossum tricingulum. 
Halictus , 



724 

38 

8 



752 
265 



77 
329 



664 
532 



238 
756 



604 



261 

480 



652 
680 
656 
496 
632 
580 
584 
524 
25 



269 
273 



137 
13 

760 



373 
85 
367 
129 
448 
ib. 



Fam. APIDiE. 

377. Panurgus ursinus ... . 101 

378. Chelostoma florisomnis . . 628 

379. Heriades truncorum . . . 504 



380. Anthidiiim manicatum 

381. Osmia parietina . . . . 

382. Megachile WiUughbiella . 

383. Ccelioxys vectis .... 

384. Epeolus variegatus . . . 

385. Nomada Dalii .... 

386. Melecta punctata . . . 

387. Anthophora Haworthana . 

388. Saropoda bimaculata . . 

389. Psithyrus rupestris . . . 

390. Bombus ericetorum . . 

391. Apis mellifica 



Order 7- NEUROPTERA. 
Fam. LIBELLULIDiE. 

392. Libellula rubicunda. 

393. Cordulia Curtisii 

394. Agrion rubellum 

Fam. EPHEMERIDJ:. 

395. Ephemera cognata . 

396. Baetis dispar . . . 

Fam. PANORPID^. 

397. Panorpa germanica . 

398. Boreus hyemaUs. . 



Fam. HEMEROBID^ 

399. Chrysopa abbreviata 

400. Hemerobius fimbriatus 

Fam. PSOCID^. 

401. Coniopteryx psociformis 

402. Psocus fenestratus . 



Fam. RAPHIDID.E. 

403. Raphidia ophiopsis ... 

Fam. PERLID.E. 

404. Perla cephalotes. . . . 

Order 8. TRICHOPTERA. 
Fam. PHRYGANIDJE. 

405. Agrypnia Pagetana . . - 



406. Limnephilus elegans . . 

407. Phryganea minor . . . 

Fam. HYDROPSYCHIDiE. 

408. Polycentropus irroratus . 

409. Hydropsyche fulvipes . . 

Fam. LEPTOCERID^. 

410. Leptocerus ocliraceus . . 

411. Molanna angustata . . . 

Fam. PSYCHOMIDiE. 

412. Chimarra marginata . . 
Fam. ACENTROPID.E. 

413. Acentropus Garnonsii . . 



Plate. 

61 
222 
218 
349 
516 
419 
125 
357 
361 
468 
564 
769 



712 
616 
732 



708 
484 



696 

118 



520 
202 



528 
648 



37 



190 



540 
488 
592 



544 
601 



57 
716 

561 

497 



VOL. IV. 



Po 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF HYMENOPTERA, &c. Vol. IV. 



■^?e _ Plate. 

70 "Acentropus Gamonsii 497 

Si "Agrion rubellura 732 

^5»Agr\'pnia Pagetana 540 

a/ —Alyson Kennedii 584 

/<5-Ammophila campestris .... 604 

3SL-Andrena Kirbii 129 

Jf-Aiitliidium manicatum .... 61 

«/if-Anthophora Haworthana. . . . 357 
5^c-"Apatliites rupestris. . . . •. . 468 

V-?-Apis mellifica 769 

/3 -Astata victor 261 

i'J-Baetis dispar 484 

^7-Bombus ericetorum . ... 564 

5i-Boi'eus hyemalis 118 

oZ'f'-Cerceris laeta 269 

// -Ceropales variegatus 756 

35'~Chelostoma florisomnis .... 628 

o'^ -Cliimarra marginata 561 

3 - Chrysis fulgida 8 

J^ -Chrysopa abbreviata 520 

/ — Cleptes nitidula 724 

Yo -Ccelioxys vectis 349 

^^i-Colletes fodiens 85 

5 !"' " Coniopteryx psociformis . . . . 528 

;" > -Cordulia Curtisii 616 

/'/ -Corynopus, St. Farg 656 

ib -Crabro subpunctatiis 680 

3; -Dasypoda Swammerdamella . .367 

/I -Diodontus gracilis 496 

^^ -Epeolus variegatus 516 

5"R'Ephemera cognata 708 

' 7 -Eunienes atricornis 13 

•f -Formica ruf a 752 

olA-Gorytes bicinctus 524 

a^^-Halictus 448 

(5. — Hedychrum ardens 38 

f"^ -Hemerobius fimbriatus .... 202 

- -Heriades truncorum 504 



Hydropsyche fulvipes . . 
Hylseus dilatatus . . . 
Lasioglossmn tricingulum 
Leptocerus ochraceus. 
Libellula rubicunda . . 
Limnephilus elegans . . 
Megachile Willughbiella . 
M electa punctata . . . 
Mellinus sabulosus. . . 
Methoca ichiieumonides . 
Mimesa, Shuck. . . . 



Molanna angustata. . 
Mutilla ephippium. 
Myrmecina Latreillii . 
Nomada Dalii . . . 
Odynerus parietinus . 
Osmia parietina. . . 
Oxybelus argentatus . 
Panorpa germanica 
Panurgus ursinus . . 
Pempbredon unicolor. 
Perla cephalotes . . 
Philanthus androgynus 
Phryganea minor . . 
Physoscelis, St. Farg. . 
Polycentropus irroratus 
Pompilus rufipes . . 
Psen equestris . . . 
PsithjTus rupestris. . 
Psocus fenestratus . . 
Raphidia ophiopsis 
Rhopalum tibiale . . 
Sapyga clavicoruis . . 
Saropoda bimaculata . 
Tiphia minuta . . . 
Trypoxylon clavicerum 
Vespa rufa .... 



Plate, 
601- 
373 
448 

57 
712 
488 
218. 
125 
580 
329- 

25 
716 

77 
265 
419 
137' 
222 
480 
696 
101 
632 
190 
273 



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-io 

~c 

St 

1" 



592- 
656- 
544 'f:~ 

238-/5 

25- -3 3 
468' yt. 
648-^^^ 

37- t- 
656-/7 
532- f 
361- Tfr 
664-? 
652 -/f 
760-J? 



Folio. Continnation of Errata from Vol. III. 

SHI'' last line but one, ybr Aira precox (Early Hair-grass) read Carex dioica mas 
(Common Separate-headed Carex). I regret that in their journey from Cam- 
bridge the labels were displaced, which led to a transposition of the names. 

389 Agriotypus armatus. Mr. Wailes in a letter says, " I took a specimen on the 
shore of Derwentwater (amongst the small stones so characteristic of lakes 
amongst the older strata,) in April last. It is a female." 

395 The characters of $ and ? added to the iigures of the antennffi in the Plate, 
have been accidentally transposed, and the signs in the description, lines 14 and 
17, have been made to correspond, to prevent further mistakes. 

419^ Nomada Dalii was taken at Charmouth, Dorset, May 12, and not in the New Forest. 

439 line 34, after centre add and produced behind like a scuteUum which is sometimes. 

472^ line 25 for sublunulate one read sublunulate spot. 

VOL. IV. 

129'' line 4 from the bottom, ybr Llandidus read Llandidno. 

202'' ybr Betonica officinalis, &c. read Prunella vulgaris (Self-heal). 
ib. last line but 4. for Dundingston read Duddingston. 

357 Anthophora Haworthana. Since this species was published I have received 
a pair from Dr. Howitt, who takes the sexes near Nottingham : the female is 
so similar to that of A. retusa, that the only difference I can discover is in the 
colour of the spurs to the tibia;, which a,Te ferruginous, and not dusky or black 
as in J. retusa. 

448 Lasioylossnm tricingulum. I find that I possess the female of this curious insect. 

616 tine 25, after crossing, add with a tooth at the extremity of the inner margin. 

632'' last line but one, /or Queckit read Quekett. 

652 line ^2, for clavigerum read clavicerum. 

712*" line 'il for Dorchester read Doncaster. 

732 Agrion ruhellum Van. Lin. : the var. figured is A. avratiliacus of Jlons. de 
Selys-Lougchamps. 






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